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Write 8 pages with APA style on Computer Simulation of Action Potentials in Squid Axon. Action potentials are rapid changes in the membrane potential. In turn, this potential is based upon the differences in concentrations of ions, each of which is charged either negative (anion) or positive (cation), across the membrane. The concentration difference is due to a selectively permeable membrane, which prevents the ions from transferring sides to equalize the number of ions between inside and outside a cell. But why is there a concentration gradient in the first place? The Na+-K+ pumps along with the cell membrane force three Na+ outside and two K+ inside the cell. As a result, there is a net deficit of positive ions and a resulting negative potential inside the cell. In a resting state, the membrane potential is -90 millivolts (90 mV). Upon depolarization, the membrane rapidly becomes very permeable to Na+, through its voltage-gated channels, allowing the excess of Na+ to pass through into the cell. As a result, the resting potential is changed to as much as +35 mV. Through repolarization, the resting potential is gained back not long after depolarization, when Na+ voltage-gated channels close and K+ passively diffuse down its concentration gradient through its own voltage-gated channels (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

Write 8 pages with APA style on Computer Simulation of Action Potentials in Squid Axon. Action potentials are rapid changes in the membrane potential. In turn, this potential is based upon the differences in concentrations of ions, each of which is charged either negative (anion) or positive (cation), across the membrane. The concentration difference is due to a selectively permeable membrane, which prevents the ions from transferring sides to equalize the number of ions between inside and outside a cell.
But why is there a concentration gradient in the first place? The Na+-K+ pumps along with the cell membrane force three Na+ outside and two K+ inside the cell. As a result, there is a net deficit of positive ions and a resulting negative potential inside the cell. In a resting state, the membrane potential is -90 millivolts (90 mV). Upon depolarization, the membrane rapidly becomes very permeable to Na+, through its voltage-gated channels, allowing the excess of Na+ to pass through into the cell. As a result, the resting potential is changed to as much as +35 mV. Through repolarization, the resting potential is gained back not long after depolarization, when Na+ voltage-gated channels close and K+ passively diffuse down its concentration gradient through its own voltage-gated channels (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

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