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PICOT Question

PICOT QuestionPICOT QuestionLiterature Evaluation TableStudent Name:ZKPICOT Question:In cigarette smokers older than 17 years (P), does nicotine replacement therapy (I), versus using other smoking cessation therapies (C), affect smoking cessation outcomes (O) over a period of three months (T)?This was not to be your PICOT but 2-3 sentences on your change topic.  You cannot change the form to fit what you think this should be.PICOT QuestionORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERECriteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), andPermalink or Working Link to Access Article Buller, D., Halperin, A., Severson, H., Borland, R., Slater, M., Bettinghaus, E., Tinkelman, D., Cutter, G. & Woodall, G.J Public Health ManagPract., 20(2), E7-E15doi:  10.1097/PHH.0b013e3182a0b8c7(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3966563/) Metrik, J., Spillane, N., Leventhal, A. & Kahler, G.Drug Alcohol Depend., 119(3), 194-200doi:  10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.06.004(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199036/) Rath, J., Villanti, A., Abrams, D. & Vallone, D.Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 679134doi: 10.1155/2012/679134(https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2012/679134/citations/) Thurgood, S., McNeill, A., Clark-Carter, D. & Brose, L.Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(5), 993-1001.doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv127 (https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article/18/5/993/2510055)Article Title and Year Published Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services.2014 Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers.2011 Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation.2012 A Systematic Review of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment or Recovery2015Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study Research question (implied): How useful and effective is nicotine patch in smoking cessation interventions?Aim of the study: Use and effectiveness of nicotine patch was explored in a randomized trial evaluating smoking cessation interventions with this population.PICOT Question Research question (implied): How does marijuana use affect nicotine smoking cessation efforts for alcohol drinkers?Aim of the study: To determine whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking among alcohol drinkers. Research question (implied): What is the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco products, and dual use in a USA nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34.Aim of the study: To determine nicotine use prevalence among young adults in the USA Research questions: (1) what is the effectiveness of different smoking cessation interventions for patients with substance use disorders?(2) what is the impact of smoking cessation treatment on substance use outcomes?Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with substance use disorders.Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Quantitative design that included a pretest and posttest trial with the participants randomized.PICOT Question Quantitative design that applied a randomized control trial Quantitative study using online panel data Qualitative study that relied on literature review of peer-reviewed publicationsSetting/Sample Sample comprised of 3,094 smokers aged 18-30 Sample comprised 236 heavy drinkers of which 57 currently smoked marijuana Sample comprised 4,201 young adults aged between 18 and 34 Randomized controlled trails published between 1990 and 2014Methods: Intervention/Instruments  The intervention entails subjecting the treatment group to a two-week nicotine replacement therapy. The intervention entailed using marijuana as a substitute for tobacco smoking and alcohol use. The instrument entailed collecting information on whether the participants used nicotine products The instrument entailed reviewed databases, grey literature, reference lists, and journalsAnalysis  Compared the performance of nicotine replacement therapy against other cessation strategies such as medication and counselling. Comparing tobacco smoking and alcohol use between marijuana smokers and non-marijuana smokers. Report the sample proportion that used nicotine products against the proportion that did not use nicotine to determine prevalence. Assessed emerging themes from the peer review.Key Findings  Greater nicotine replacement therapy use among those who received training than those who did not receive training (12-weeks: 84.3% v. 41.9%, p<.001; 26-weeks: 87.6% v. 51.1%, p<.001).PICOT Question Marijuana smokers reduced drinking by 47% over an 8-week period, to be followed by 24% reduction in tobacco smoking over the next 18 weeks.PICOT Question 23% of the participants used nicotine of which 30% reported dual use Nicotine patches, nicotine gum, counselling, contingency management, relapse prevention, cognitive behavioral therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, and bupropion are effective strategies for ensuring smoking abstinence and cessation.Recommendations  Nicotine replacement therapy should be availed to young adults who seek to cease smoking. Marijuana smoking presents a viable substitute for tobacco smoking and alcohol use. There is a need to monitor and implement smoking cessation efforts for young adults in the USA The discussed strategies should be extensively applied in smoking abstinence and cessation programs.Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project The article supports the present project by providing tangible evidence to show that smoking cessation can be achieved by applying replacement therapy. The article supports the present project be presenting evidence to support the use of marijuana as tobacco substitute. The article supports the current project by highlighting the need to addressing smoking as a problem among young adults. The article supports the current project by indicating that nicotine replacement therapy is effective for smoking cessation programs. PICOT QuestionCriteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), andPermalink or Working Link to Access Article Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Secades-Villa, R., Florez-Salamanca, L.m Okuda, M., Liu, S. & Blanco, C.Drug Alcohol Depend., 132(3), 479-485doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.008(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723776/) Chen, J., Nguyen, A., Malesker, M. & Morrow, L.Respiratory Care, 61(5), 640-645.doi: 10.4187/respcare.04439 Hakim, S., Chowdhury, M. & Uddin, J.Preventive Medicine Reports, 8, 122-128.doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.08.007(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221133551730133X) Diemert, L., Bondy, S., Brown, S. &Manske, S.American Journal of Public Health, 103(3), 449-453.doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300878Article Title and Year Published Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services.PICOT Question2014 High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.2016 Correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh.2017 Young Adult Smoking Cessation: Predictors of Quit Attempts and Abstinence.2013Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study Research question (implied): What are the estimated relapse rates and predictors to smoking?Aim of the study: to estimate rates of relapse to smoking in the community and to identify predictors of relapse.PICOT Question Research question (implied):What are the high-risk smoking behaviors and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals?Aim of the study: to present data regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals.PICOT Question Research question (implied): What are the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh?Aim of the study: to identify the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh. Research question (implied): What are the predictors of young adults smoking cessation behavior?Aim of the study: to determine if young adultssmokers require effective and appropriate cessation resources.Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative) Quantitative design that relied on secondary data Quantitative design that relied on surveys Quantitative design that relied on secondary from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for Bangladesh. Quantitative design that relied on data from Ontario Tobacco Survey.Setting/Sample Data was collected from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter 1552 smokers who are older than 14 years of age. 592 young adult smokersMethods: Intervention/Instruments Information on smoking relapse and predictors Presenting opinions on the research topic Information on successful and unsuccessful smoking quitters Information on smoking quit attemptsAnalysis Reported relapse and predictor statistics Present recurring themes Statistics on successful and unsuccessful smoking quitters among the participants Statistics on factors that influence smoking quit attemptsKey Findings Risk of relapse exceeded 50% within 1 year but dropped to 10% over the next 30 years. 90% of the participants engaged in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Best smoking cessation aid was nicotine replacement therapy. Barriers to smoking cessation included excessive stress and anxiety.PICOT Question Of the 1552 smokers, 1058 unsuccessfully quitwhile 494 successfully quit 25% of young adult smokers attempt cessation, and 14% are successful for the first 30 days.Recommendations Attention on persons who quit over the last year since they are at highest risk of relapse, although it should be noted that the risk is not eliminated over time.PICOT Question There is a need to address excessive stress and anxiety as barriers to cessation even as nicotine replacement therapy is applied as the best strategy among homeless individuals. Cessation programs require an integrated approach to improve successful outcomes Cessation is predicted by resources, prior attempts and intention.Abstinence is predicted by self-efficacy, resources, support, and level of addiction. Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone The article supports the project by showing that smoking cessation is a continuous process and the risk of relapse only decreases over time and is not fully eliminated.PICOT Question The article supports the project by showing that nicotine replacement therapy is an effective strategy for smoking cessation. The article supports the current project by showing that cessation approaches are influenced by demographic factors such that what works for one group does not necessarily work for another group. As such, it would not be right to assume that nicotine replacement therapy would work for the population of interest since it works for other age groups.PICOT Question The article supports the current project by presenting factors that influence smoking cessation and are likely to have a destabilizing effect on the current project unless they are controlled. The rubric requirement was for documentation of sources which is a correctly formatted APA reference list at the end of this assignment which is not included. ZK,You cannot change a form and add in information to change the requirements to suit your own purpose.  This is due to accreditation issues.  Please do not change forms in the future, should there be a GCU form attached to an assignment.PICOT QuestionPlease make sure you are following the instructions to include reviewing the assignment instructions, rubric, announcements section, and the QFTI forum weekly for assignment information.  This could have helped you save losing points this week.I love the fact you want people to quit smoking as I am severely allergic to the point of nearing anaphylaxis at times.  I wish everyone would quit smoking.  I wish you well in the rest of the class.  Thank youTKerryWhile the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone change proposal project, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project.A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Statement Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 850-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:PICOT QuestionTitle pageIntroduction sectionA comparison of research questionsA comparison of sample populationsA comparison of the limitations of the studyA conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further researchPrepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.PICOT QuestionPlease, references should not be older than 5 years and use Grand Canyon University formatApply RubricsLiterature Review  1Unsatisfactory0.00% 2Less than Satisfactory75.00% 3Satisfactory79.00% 4Good89.00% 5Excellent100.00%80.0 %Content  10.0 %Introduction An introduction is not present.PICOT Question An introduction is present, but it does not relate to the body of the paper. An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. There is nothing in the introduction to entice the reader to continue reading.PICOT Question An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. Information presented in the introduction provides incentive for the reader to continue reading. An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. Information presented in the introduction is intriguing and encourages the reader to continue reading. 20.0 %Comparison of Research Questions No comparison of research questions is presented.PICOT Question A comparison of research questions is presented, but it is not valid. A cursory though valid comparison of research questions is presented.PICOT Question A moderately thorough and valid comparison of research questions is presented. A reflective and insightful comparison of research questions is presented. 20.0 %Comparison of Sample Populations No comparison of sample populations is presented. A comparison of sample populations is presented, but it is not valid. A cursory though valid comparison of sample populations is presented. A moderately thorough and valid comparison of sample populations is presented. A reflective and insightful comparison of sample populations is presented. 20.0 %Comparison of the Limitations of the Study No comparison of the limitations of the study is presented. A comparison of the limitations of the study is presented, but it is not valid. A cursory though valid comparison of the limitations of the study is presented. A moderately thorough and valid comparison of the limitations of the study is presented. A reflective and insightful comparison of the limitations of the study is presented. 10.0 %Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Research No conclusion and recommendations for further research are presented.PICOT Question A conclusion and recommendations for further research are presented, but they are not valid. A conclusion and recommendations for further research are valid, but they are cursory. A conclusion and recommendations for further research are valid and moderately thorough.PICOT Question A conclusion and recommendations for further research are reflective and insightful. 15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness  5.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. 5.0 %Argument Logic and Construction Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.PICOT Question Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.PICOT Question Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative. 5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.PICOT Question Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.PICOT Question Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. 5.0 %Format  2.0 %Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.PICOT Question Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.PICOT Question All format elements are correct. 3.0 %Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) Sources are not documented.PICOT Question Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.PICOT Question Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error. 100 %Total Weightage   Put Your Full Paper Title HereYour NameSchool Name  AbstractType your abstract (summary) here. Note that the abstract paragraph is not indented. The abstract is not the same as your introduction paragraph. Do not use “I” or “we” in your abstract. The abstract’s length should be proportional to the length of the work it is summarizing, between 50 to 250 words.PICOT Question Put Your Full Paper Title HereNotice that main title is repeated above. First paragraph and all paragraphs are indented one half inch. When typing, be sure to type to the end of the line and continue typing without hitting the Enter key on your keyboard. If you hit the Enter key on your keyboard, your paper will not have correct double spacing because you will not be using word wrapping. It is important that your intro paragraph be 2-5 sentences long and that the last sentence is your paper’s thesis sentence.Put Subtitle HereBegin your second paragraph here. This is a body paragraph. It should follow the SESC formula: State, Explain, Support, Conclude. The first sentence states the paragraph’s topic. The second sentence explains the paragraph’s topic with more detail. The third, fourth, and fifth sentences should provide support for the paragraph’s topic. If you are using sources, a good place to put them is in the support section. The last sentence of the paragraph concludes and refers back to the paragraph’s main topic.PICOT QuestionPut Subtitle HereBegin your third paragraph here. This is also a body paragraph. It should also follow the SESC formula: State, Explain, Support, Conclude. The first sentence states the paragraph’s topic. The second sentence explains the paragraph’s topic with more detail. The third, fourth, and fifth sentences should provide support for the paragraph’s topic. If you are using sources, a good place to put them is in the support section. The last sentence of the paragraph concludes and refers back to the paragraph’s main topic.PICOT QuestionPut Subtitle HereBegin your fourth paragraph here. This is a body paragraph. It should follow the SESC formula: State, Explain, Support, Conclude. The first sentence states the paragraph’s topic. The second sentence explains the paragraph’s topic with more detail. The third, fourth, and fifth sentences should provide support for the paragraph’s topic. If you are using sources, a good place to put them is in the support section. The last sentence of the paragraph concludes and refers back to the paragraph’s main topic.Put Subtitle HereThis is the place for your conclusion paragraph. It does not have to be long. It should definitely refer back to the thesis of your paper. ReferencesLastname, I. (2010). Title of article with only first word capped or any proper noun. Title of Publication, 22(3), 325-340. doi or URL. PICOT Question

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