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Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) Assignment

Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) Assignment Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) AssignmentOppositional Defiant Disorder/ODD: Parent GuideUsing evidence-based research, design and develop a Parent Guide for your PathophysiologyThis assignment is a group assignment . I am only responsible for the Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder/ODD.Only the Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder/ODD please.ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREODD Pathophysiology Sample EssayThe pathophysiology of the oppositional defiant disorder has received significant scientific attention in the recent past. However, even with this considerable interest in the area, no significant and specific risk factor has been identified in the pathophysiology of the condition. However, ODD is generally associated with multifarious neurobiological abnormalities. The very first instance of the condition involves a child presenting with impaired stress reactivity that is modulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and then expressed through the release of cortisol within the brain (Antúnez, Osa, Granero, & Ezpeleta, 2016). Further, the cortisol is moderately inversely linked to aggressive symptoms of the condition. Further, ODD may be as a result of the existence of an underactive behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and overactive behavioral activation system (BAS). According to (Schoorl et al., 2018), the BAS promotes behavior as a response to signals of nonpunishment or reward. On the other hand, the BIS generate anxiety and blocks continuing behavior when novel events signals of nonpunishment or reward and innate fear stimuli exist.Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) AssignmentFurther, there are social-cognitive issues that cause the condition such as egocentrism failure to regulate a child’s behavior using verbal mediators, and cognitive distortions. In the presence of these socio-cognitive impairments, children fail to process information following the five stages of the social information processing model leading them to acquire characteristics of ODD (Brown et al., 2017)Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) Assignment. Also, the pathophysiology of ODD could be linked to genetic factors. Studies indicate that a variant of a gene responsible for encoding monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) that is connected to the neural system responsible for aggression fundamentally regulates behavior in children (Mikolajewski, Taylor, & Iacono, 2017). Brain imaging research reveal arousal patterns in brain area that are linked to aggression concerning emotion-provoking stimuli(Mikolajewski, Taylor, & Iacono, 2017). Also, the functional development of ODD affects between 2% and 6% of school-going children and these children display symptoms such as low tolerance for/of frustration, mood liability and low self-esteem. Therefore, there is no conclusive stud on the pathology of ODD as it associated with multifarious etiological factors.Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) Assignment  ReferencesAntúnez, Z., Osa, N., Granero, R., & Ezpeleta, L. (2016). Parental Psychopathology Levels as a Moderator of Temperament and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Preschoolers. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 25(10), 3124-3135.Brown, C., Granero, R., Ezpeleta, L., & Brown, C. A. (2017). The Reciprocal Influence of Callous-Unemotional Traits, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Parenting Practices in Preschoolers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 48(2), 298-307. doi:10.1007/s10578-016-0641-8Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) AssignmentMikolajewski, A. J., Taylor, J., & Iacono, W. G. (2017). Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions: genetic influences and risk for later psychopathology. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 58(6), 702-710. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12683Schoorl, J., van Rijn, S., de Wied, M., van Goozen, S., & Swaab, H. (2018). Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49(2), 298-307. Pathophysiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD) Assignment

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