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NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns Paper

NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperNURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperWeek 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional ConcernsApproximately 2.5 million households with elders are food insecure. This food insecurity among the geriatric population is not always a result of financial troubles, but can also be attributed to lack of transportation, limited functional abilities, and/or health issues that present barriers (Feeding America, n.d.). Consider Mrs. Stewart, an 82-year-old widow and Parkinson’s patient. Mrs. Stewart is unable to drive or prepare meals for herself because of Parkinson’s disease. Knowing she would not be able to eat properly given her limited functional abilities, she accepted meals from Meals on Wheels (Meals on Wheels Association of America, n.d.). Although Mrs. Stewart sought assistance before her nutritional concerns posed additional health issues, not all food insecure patients are as proactive. As an advanced practice nurse assessing these patients, you must identify issues that could have nutritional consequences and recommend the appropriate interventions.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperThis week, as you study nutritional concerns for geriatric patients, you examine tools used to assess functional abilities. You also explore the impact of functional abilities and medical conditions on the nutritional health of patients. Finally, you consider strategies for improving nutrition issues for this patient population.ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERELearning ObjectivesBy the end of this week, students will:Assess patients using tools for inpatient and long-term patient careAssess the impact of functional abilities on nutrition and hydrationAssess the impact of medical conditions on patient dietsAnalyze strategies for improving nutrition issuesApply key terms, concepts, and principles related to nutrition concerns for geriatric patientsEvaluate diagnoses for patients*Evaluate treatment and management plans**These Learning Objectives support assignments that are assigned this week, but due in Week 8.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperPhoto Credit: Mark Bowden/iStock/Getty Images Plus/Getty ImagesLearning ResourcesNote: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.Required ReadingsResnick, B. (Ed.). (2016). Geriatric nursing review syllabus: A core curriculum in advanced practice geriatric nursing (5th ed.). New York, NY: American Geriatrics Society.Chapter 29, “Nutrition and Weight” (pp. 221-228)This chapter describes age-related changes that affect nutrition in older adults. It also examines nutrition screening and assessment, nutrition syndromes, nutritional interventions, and legal and ethical issues related to older adult nutrition.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperChapter 30, “Feeding and Swallowing” (pp. 229-232)This chapter examines age-related changes that cause swallowing and feeding problems. It also examines strategies for assessing patients with swallowing and feeding problems.Holroyd-Leduc, J., & Reddy, M. (Eds.). (2012). Evidence-based geriatric medicine: A practical clinical guide. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing.Chapter 11, “Keeping Things Moving: Preventing and Managing Constipation” (pp. 140–154)This chapter defines chronic constipation and describes strategies for diagnosing, preventing, treating, and managing constipation. It also examines pharmacological treatments, identifying adverse effects of these treatments, as well as contraindications.Kowlessar, N., Robinson, K., &Schur, C. (2015, September).Older Americans Benefit from Older Americans Act Nutrition Programs. Retrieved January 16, 2017, from https://aoa.acl.gov/Program_Results/docs/2015/AoA-Research-Brief-8-2015.pdf(1), 1–15.Plawecki, K., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. (2010). Bone health nutrition issues in aging. Nutrients, 2(11), 1086–1105. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257623/This article describes the impact of osteoporosis on older adults. It then presents interventions for maintaining bone health as well as outcomes of each intervention.American Geriatrics Society. (2012). American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Retrieved from http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=49933This article examines three categories of medications that impact older adults: those that are potentially inappropriate and must be avoided, those that are potentially inappropriate and must be avoided in older adults with certain diseases, and those that must be used with caution.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperNutrition.gov. (2014). Life stages: Seniors. Retrieved from http://www.nutrition.gov/life-stages/seniorsThis website provides links to resources related to nutrition for seniors. It focuses on nutritional concerns, health issues, and nutrition education.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperRequired MediaHartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing.(n.d.). Hartford Institute Videos: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale [Video file]. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from https://consultgeri.org/try-this/general-assessment/issue-23Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 41 minutes.This media presentation demonstrates how to assess patients with the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale.Discussion: Nutrition and HydrationGeriatric patients have many nutritional and hydration concerns that impact their health and ability to acquire sufficient nutrients. Advanced practice nurses evaluating these patients must be able to account for all barriers that prevent elders from obtaining adequate nutrition, including medical conditions, transportation, finances, physiologic changes, and functional abilities. When evaluating patients, it is important to consider how they eat, what their diet consists of, and whether they have any special dietary needs that are not being met. Assessment tools, such as the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale, are an integral part of this evaluation process as they help providers identify potential obstacles for patients. In this Discussion, you assess a patient at your current practicum site and consider strategies for improving any nutrition or hydration issues.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperTo prepare:Review this week’s media presentation, as well as 29 and 30 of the Resnick text.Assess a patient using tools for inpatient and long-term patient care, such as the Lawton IADL Scale.Note: You should coordinate this opportunity with the Preceptor at your practicum site.Consider whether nutrition and/or hydration might be impacted by the patient’s functional abilities. Reflect on whether the patient is able to go out and get food to eat, cook meals, safely use the stove, etc.Consider the patient’s diet and whether they have any special dietary needs due to medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, end-stage kidney disease, diabetes, oral health issues, etc. Reflect on whether or not the patient is attempting to compensate for a medical issue and thus creating a deficiency or excess in his or her diet.Based on your patient assessment, think about strategies for improving any nutrition issues that might have presented (e.g., nutritional supplements, community resources such as Meals on Wheels, referral to a nutritionist or dietician, etc.).NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperBy Day 3Post a description of the patient assessment you performed using a tool for inpatient and long-term patient care, such as the Lawton IADL Scale. Explain whether nutrition and/or hydration might be impacted by the patient’s functional abilities. Then, describe the patient’s diet and whether he or she has any special dietary needs due to medical conditions. Address whether or not the patient is attempting to compensate for a medical issue and thus creating a deficiency or excess in his or her diet. Finally, explain strategies for improving any nutrition issues that might present during the patient assessment.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperRead a selection of your colleagues’ responses. Nutritional ConcernsThe notion of nutrition for geriatric populations includes the concept of diet as the food and nutritional material that an individual ingests with the intention of sustaining their life. Balanced diets (containing the six essential nutrients; proteins, vitamins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and water)have always been a source of concern for geriatric populations, particularly with the realization that unbalanced diets have the potential for causing serious health complications. Plawecki and Chapman-Novakofski (2010) ascertains this point by mentioning that absence or inadequate amounts of vitamin D and calcium could result in the development of osteoporosis and unhealthy bones among geriatric populations. In fact, the nutrients build and repair tissues, and regulate metabolic processes such as strengthening the body’s immune system and allowing it to fight off diseases. Additionally, geriatric populations obtain energy from the food they eat. Also, the nourishments provide the components needed to repair worn out tissues (Resnick, 2016).NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperThe human body is so complex that it is virtually beyond understanding. Imagine all the biological processes and reactions that simultaneously occur to sustain daily life. But as remarkable as the biological processes are, they cannot occur without the presence of the previously mentioned six essential nutrients. Good nutrition is reliant on a number ofdiet constituents. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are macronutrients that offer energy along with other functions in the body. Minerals and vitamins are micronutrients that are considered indispensable for routine biological activities. It is notable that micronutrients and macronutrients have a dependency relationship whereby they work in concert to achieve favorable outcomes. For instance, oxygen transport requires that iron be absorbed in the body with the iron absorption process being facilitated by vitamin C. Another example can be seen in macronutrients metabolism that is facilitated by vitamin B. In addition, water is necessary as a nutrient for the body (Holroyd-Leduc & Reddy, 2012). In this respect, nutrients work together to keep the body healthy and functioning at its best.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperRealizing that nutrition is important in realizing a healthy body, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) developed dietary uptake guidelines targeted at specific gender groups and stages. These guidelines are estimations since digestion and nutrient absorption vary among different individuals, irrespective of age and gender similarities. Some of the guidelines include the globally accepted recommended daily allowance (RDA) and recommended daily values (RDV). They also note that although excessive uptake or deficiency of a particular nutrient from a diet may not necessarily be catastrophic, it is still a source of health concern (Kowlessar, Robinson &Schur, 2015). The implication is that geriatrics should review DGA guidelines to determine their dietary requirements.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperAdditionally, geriatric populations should note that it is not the foods nutritional value that determines intake in the diet, rather the cooking and preparation methods do this. In this case, processing the food has the potential to change its nutritional value thereby having health implications for the individual. For instance, cooking vegetables for a long time and at high temperatures reduces the amount of vitamins available in the food by denaturing them. The six discussed nutrients are obtainable from a wide range of foods and water, and the best bet is to ingest a nutritional diet that integrates the three established philosophies of nutrition: balance, variety, and moderation. In addition, the recommended nutrient intake values such as RDA and RDV must also be considered (Resnick, 2016).NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns PaperAlthough having knowledge of good nutrition is important for geriatric population, applying that knowledge could be limited by some factors. Firstly, it can be limited by finances such that the individual is unable to purchase the required food. This limitation can be overcome by accessing free-meal programs designed for geriatric populations. Secondly, the application can be limited by food availability. This can be overcome by eating foods that are in season since they would be available at lower prices. Finally, the application can be limited by an inability to develop a good meal plan. This limitation can be overcome by seeking advice from a nutritionist on the specific proportions of each food that should be included at each meal time. Applying these strategies is anticipated to improve nutrition for geriatric populations.NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns Paper  ReferencesHolroyd-Leduc, J. & Reddy, M. (Eds.). (2012). Evidence-based geriatric medicine: a practical clinical guide. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing.Kowlessar, N., Robinson, K., &Schur, C. (2015). Older Americans Benefit from Older Americans Act Nutrition Programs. Retrieved from https://aoa.acl.gov/Program_Results/docs/2015/AoA-Research-Brief-8-2015.pdfPlawecki, K., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. (2010). Bone health nutrition issues in aging. Nutrients, 2(11), 1086-1105. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257623/Resnick, B. (Ed.). (2016). Geriatric nursing review syllabus: a core curriculum in advanced practice geriatric nursing (5thed.). New York, NY: American Geriatrics Society. NURS 6540 Week 7: Common Geriatric Syndromes – Nutritional Concerns Paper

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