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NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice

NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeA walk through the Business section of any bookstore or a quick Internet search on the topic will reveal a seemingly endless supply of writings on leadership. Formal research literature is also teeming with volumes on the subject.However, your own observation and experiences may suggest these theories are not always so easily found in practice. Not that the potential isn’t there; current evidence suggests that leadership factors such as emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behaviors, for example, can be highly effective for leading nurses and organizations.Yet, how well are these theories put to practice? In this Discussion, you will examine formal leadership theories. You will compare these theories to behaviors you have observed firsthand and discuss their effectiveness in impacting your organization.To Prepare:NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReview the Resources and examine the leadership theories and behaviors introduced.Identify two to three scholarly resources, in addition to this Module’s readings, that evaluate the impact of leadership behaviors in creating healthy work environments.Reflect on the leadership behaviors presented in the three resources that you selected for review.ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREBy Day 3 of Week 4Post two key insights you had from the scholarly resources you selected. Describe a leader whom you have seen use such behaviors and skills, or a situation where you have seen these behaviors and skills used in practice. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain to what extent these skills were effective and how their practice impacted the workplace.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeBy Day 6 of Week 4Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by explaining how the leadership skills they described may impact your organization or your personal leadership, or by identifying challenges you see in applying the skills described. Rubric Detail Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.ContentName: NURS_6053_Module03_Week04_Discussion_RubricNURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeGrid ViewList ViewExcellentGoodFairPoorMain PostingPoints Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Supported by at least three current, credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticePoints Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. Supported by at least three credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)Responds to some of the discussion question(s). One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Post is cited with two credible sources. Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Contains some APA formatting errors.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately. Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. Contains only one or no credible sources. Not written clearly or concisely. Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.Main Post: TimelinessPoints Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)Posts main post by day 3.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Does not post by day 3.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeFirst ResponsePoints Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticePoints Range: 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.Points Range: 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)Response is on topic and may have some depth.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticePoints Range: 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited.Second ResponsePoints Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeDemonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeCommunication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)Response is on topic and may have some depth. Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticePoints Range: 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)Response may not be on topic and lacks depth. Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. Responses to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited.ParticipationPoints Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticePoints Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days. Total Points: 100Name: NURS_6053_Module03_Week04_Discussion_RubricDiscussion – Week 4Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeA walk through the Business section of any bookstore or a quick Internet search on the topic will reveal a seemingly endless supply of writings on leadership. Formal research literature is also teeming with volumes on the subject.However, your own observation and experiences may suggest these theories are not always so easily found in practice. Not that the potential isn’t there; current evidence suggests that leadership factors such as emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behaviors, for example, can be highly effective for leading nurses and organizations.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeYet, how well are these theories put to practice? In this Discussion, you will examine formal leadership theories. You will compare these theories to behaviors you have observed firsthand and discuss their effectiveness in impacting your organization.To Prepare:Review the Resources and examine the leadership theories and behaviors introduced.Identify two to three scholarly resources, in addition to this Module’s readings, that evaluate the impact of leadership behaviors in creating healthy work environments.Reflect on the leadership behaviors presented in the three resources that you selected for review.By Day 3 of Week 4Post two key insights you had from the scholarly resources you selected. Describe a leader whom you have seen use such behaviors and skills, or a situation where you have seen these behaviors and skills used in practice. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain to what extent these skills were effective and how their practice impacted the workplace.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeBy Day 6 of Week 4Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by explaining how the leadership skills they described may impact your organization or your personal leadership, or by identifying challenges you see in applying the skills described.Click on the Reply button below to reveal the textbox for entering your message. Then click on the Submit button to post your message.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Hello everyone! I am sure all of us have seen positive and negative behaviors and practices among colleagues and leaders within nursing. We take the positive from what we see and put it into our own nursing practice and avoid the negatives. I have seen many nurses become stuck on old habits that are no longer best practice or less efficient because that is what they are used to. A good leader does not get stuck in the past. They use current best practices, create a functional work environment, lead by example and foster a culture of inclusiveness and comradery. They are assertive and treat those underneath them fairly. That is what a transformational leader does. According to Duggan et al. high functioning agencies “were more likely to have strong leadership, partnerships, financial flexibility, workforce development activities, and an organizational culture supportive of evidence based decision making and implementation of A-EBPs (Administrative evidence based practices)”. On the other hand agencies that had poor functioning facilities had low morale and practices that did not promote functional work environments.“Transformational leadership was found to positively relate with effective nursing unit organizational culture, while transactional leadership had a weak relationship. In addition, laissez-faire leadership was negatively related to nursing unit organizational culture” (Sfantou et al., 2017). NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeAspen University provides insight into 7 types of leadership. laissez-faire leadership gives a lot of autonomy to their nurses, but can lead to failure with inexperienced nurses who need more guidance. Transformational leaders have an opposite approach since they are there during the day-to-day activities to lead in person and train nurses to be the nurse the facility requires. “To be a great leader — and recognize effective leadership — don’t be afraid to adapt and change your strategy for your patients, colleagues, organization, and self. Use critical thinking to make those choices and never stop growing as a nurse” (Wofford, 2021). I have worked in a lot of places that practice laissez-faire leadership which can be stressful initially when learning how everything functions, but then is much less stressful later since there is less micromanaging and the leaders can focus their attention on other facility issues. Transformational leadership is something I have seen very little of and I feel would work very well initially to get the right mindset for employees, but then a laissez-faire leadership style could be used for that employee after. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeFrom what I have seen there cannot be too much hand holding and not too much autonomy or the organization will not function efficiently. There needs to be a healthy balance of both and the leader needs to be able to identify the nurses individual strengths and weaknesses to make that decision. At my current place of employment our DON is great! She is very involved and sometimes will work alongside us to take care of patients if the patient load is drowning the nursing staff. She is what I would consider a Transformational nurse because she is constantly talking and communicating with staff on all levels, which I can see takes up most of her life and she has almost no time for herself outside of work. She is a machine!NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice.  Although she is so involved, which is great, our supervisors below her take advantage of her doing many of the supervisory duties that they should be doing. This leads to our supervisors sometimes coming to us with questions on how to do functions that they should know. The facility thrives under her leadership because she is able to keep up with upper level organizational tasks and lower level organizational tasks, but that is because she is involved and thinking of our hospital 24/7. Our DON is a workaholic and takes pride in her job, but I can tell she is also stressed and longs for a day where she doesnt have so much responsibility. It inspires a lot of us and makes us want to make her job easier by emulating her work ethic, maybe not to her extent, but to a manageable degree. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesDuggan, K., Aisaka, K., Tabak, R. G., Smith, C., Erwin, P., & Brownson, R. C. (2015, June 6).Implementing administrative evidence based practices: Lessons from the field in six localhealth departments across the United States. BMC Health Services Research. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2021, fromhttps://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-015-0891-3.Wofford, P. (2021, September 9). 7 leadership styles in nursing: How do they impact you?Aspen University. Retrieved September 16, 2021, fromhttps://www.aspen.edu/altitude/leadership-styles-in-nursing/.Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A. E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., Patelarou, E.(2017, October 14). Importance of leadership style towards quality of caremeasures in healthcare settings: A systematic review. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland).Retrieved September 16, 2021, fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746707/.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4RE: Discussion – Week 4             thank you for your response! I think my DON needs to place more trust in her house supervisors and hold them to their responsibilities since a lot of what she does is in their job description. She should also trust them to give her credible feedback on what is going on in the different units of the hospital so she can stay in touch with how her floor nurses are feeling. One article writes how House Supervisors have a lot of responsibility, which can entails listening, being diplomatic and allowing people to vent even if you do not have an answer or solution at that moment (HealthNews, 2019). If the DON communicates well and has the respect of her house supervisors this should not be an issue to pass those tasks to them. Maybe selecting a time at least every couple days to just have a casual chat in the office would be fine just to stay in touch. Great leaders are enthralled by the feedback of those working under them and should take that into account when making decisions (Solomon, 2017).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesHealthNews. (2019, July 28). Behind the scenes: House supervisors. KV Healthcare. Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://www.kvhealthcare.org/2019/01/behind-the-scenes-house-supervisors/.Solomon, L. (2017, October 25). Two-thirds of managers are uncomfortable communicating with employees. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://hbr.org/2016/03/two-thirds-of-managers-are-uncomfortable-communicating-with-employees. RE: Discussion – Week 4            I enjoyed reading your discussion post this week. Leadership style has often been considered one of the vital factors that can enhance employees’ commitment. It is seen as the live wire for the attainment of organizational goals. (Abasilim et al., 2019)Laissez-Faire Leader does little planning or decision-making. The leaders who adopt the laissez-faire leadership style will delegate responsibility for accomplishing work and decision-making power to their employees. The laissez-faire leadership style can be effective when workers are skilled since some workers enjoy autonomy, appealing to many employees. However, if a leader is uninvolved or takes a passive approach to deal with workers who need more input, this form of leadership may have negative implications. It can also trigger a lack of unity and cohesion within a community or team, and projects can get off track if there is insufficient oversight.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeTransformational leadership is one of the most popular theories in nursing practice. The leaders in my healthcare organization often apply transactional and transformational leadership, which has been very effective. There is a significant medium positive relationship between transformational leadership style and employees’ commitment. A successful leader must be able to strike a balance between leadership traits. The transformational theory requires nurse leaders to motivate and inspire their followers to perform beyond expectation and work beyond their basic level of competence (Hutchinson & Jackson, 2012).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesAbasilim, U. D., Gberevbie, D. E., & Osibanjo, O. A. (2019). Leadership Styles and Employees’ Commitment: Empirical Evidence from Nigeriahttps://journals-sagepub-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/action/doSearch?target=default&ContribAuthorStored=Gberevbie%2C+D+EHutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more critical interpretation. Nursing Inquiry, 20(1), 11-22.https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12006NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4            thank you for responding to my post! I agree with there being risks with Laissez-Faire in staying on track for accomplishing goals. Using multiple leadership styles, I feel is the best since there are negatives and positives of each one. Each person is different in learning and work ethic so there has to be adjustment to match each persons needs. In one article I read there are 2 leadership styles, dominance and prestige, that are reported to have great success when alternating between the 2 as a leader. Dominance is where the boss is assertive and employees are enticed by benefits such as bonuses to follow the leader and prestige is used to get the employees to follow by knowledge and example (Maner, 2021)NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice. Each is used in different circumstances, but supposedly brings a healthy balance to keep employees, customers and CEOs of the company happy. There are multiple mixtures of leadership styles and some would recommend not just using one, but different ones depending on the situations. Some people can influence people by personality alone, which is what Oprah Winfrey utilizes and some people utilize command-and-control like Gordan Ramsey to get everyone to follow the rules with him being the sole decision maker (Blanken, 2019). I am sure there are times each of these styles could be used under the right conditions. ReferencesBlanken, R. (2019, December 2). Eight leadership styles and when to use them. ASAE. Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://www.asaecenter.org/resources/articles/an_plus/2019/december/eight-leadership-styles-and-when-to-use-them.Maner, J. (2021, August 31). Good bosses switch between two leadership styles. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://hbr.org/2016/12/good-bosses-switch-between-two-leadership-stylesRE: Discussion – Week 4Week 4 Response # 1There are times different styles could be used to fit the situation best. While we should develop our primary way of leading our teams, it is essential to know different strategies to be most efficient and successful.The leadership style of any leader should be based on their strength to be effective. Utilizing different leadership techniques, depending on the situation and needs of staff, patients, or organization is a valuable skill and should not be taken for granted. Transformational leadership style is believed to be a gold standard in nursing (Hughes, 2019). However, more studies today indicate that authentic and transactional leadership styles are just as good or even more effective than transformational styles in certain situations. Hughes (2019) describes those efforts to support projects like reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety should be made by utilizing transactional style.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeThe authentic style is often used to gain followers’ trust and is believed to minimize burnout levels and increase engagement among newly graduated nurses (Gomes et al., 2020). Laissez-faire leadership, on the other hand, is one of the least studied, most utilized, and the least effective leadership styles (Skogstad et al., 2014). It is a style associated with lack of clarity and role ambiguity, and it is believed to be the root of workplace stress and leads to mistrust, low morale, and burnout (Skogstad et al., 2021).While some people are born natural leaders, most of us need to do some work to become influential leaders. Learning about your strengths, building upon them, being aware of your limitations is the first step to become a successful leader. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesGomes Maziero, V., Bernardes, A., Vendas Righetti, E. A., Spiri, W. C., & Gabriel, C. S. (2020). Positive aspects of authentic leadership in nursing work: integrative review. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 73, 1–8. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0118Hughes, V. (2019). Nurse leader impact: A review. Nursing Management, 50(4), 42–49. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000554338.47637.23Skogstad, A., Hetland, J., Glasø, L., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Is avoidant leadership a root cause of subordinate stress? Longitudinal relationships between laissez-faire leadership and role ambiguity. Work & Stress, 28(4), 323–341. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/02678373.2014.957362NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4 (Response 2)Thank you for your post regarding the leadership qualities of education and motivation. Transformational leadership encompasses a leader’s ability to motivate their staff to excel beyond their basic job requirements. A leader who comprehends the transformational leadership style can encourage trust from their fellow workers and promote organizational attainment through respect. A transformational leader is inspiring and motivating to those around them (Boamah et al., 2018). A transformational leader also encourages generativity within their organization. Generativity includes staff coaching and mentorship to develop their roles further and potentially climb the leadership ladder (Marshall & Broome, 2017)NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice. The organization that I work for offers leadership courses throughout the year for any nominated staff to attend. The leadership course is held with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other community leaders. The organization leaders have the mentality to train employees like they will replace you continuously; this is extremely helpful when a leader is sick or on extended leave; the organization can fully function in their absence, creating continuity for staff and the patients.The leadership qualities of motivation and education impact the organization that I am employed at significantly. A leader who encompasses motivation can better find solutions to issues that may arise within staff or patient safety. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) states that approximately 98,000 patients die in America due to avoidable medical errors. Patient safety and care quality are linked to effective leadership within organizations. An organization that needs good leadership lacks a productive working environment, including appropriate staffing, and therefore the patients are directly affected. An effective leader inspires the right working environment and ultimately improves patient care (Boamah et al., 2018).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesBoamah, S. A., Spence Laschinger, H. K., Wong, C., & Clarke, S. (2018). Effect of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction and Patient Safety Outcomes. Nursing Outlook, 66(2), 180–189. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2017.10.004.Marshall, E. S., & Broome, M. E. (2017). Transformational Leadership in Nursing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice  RE: Discussion – Week 4Leaders are important in organizations. Leaders are defined and characterized by the ability to inspire and create a vision for the employees to follow. It is the discipline and art of guiding, directing, motivating, and inspiring a group or organization toward the achievement of common goals. It requires energy, commitment, communication, creativity, and credibility (Marshall & Broome, 2017). Most, if not all leaders have vital qualities such as good communication skills, stress management, critical thinking, caring, and integrity. Lack of leadership support is one of the top reasons staff nurses report leaving their employers (Brewer et al., 2016). NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeTransformational leadership is based on the trust and respect that employees feel about their leader and therefore are motivated to do much more than is expected from them. Transformational Leaders have a vision for the future, seek change and are challenged from their followers (Krepia et al., 2018). They also practice emotional intelligence which is one’s ability to synchronize into the world, by being able to connect with others, manage one’s outcomes and being aware of other’s emotional states (Krepia et al., 2018).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeThe manager on the floor that I work possess most of these qualities. She is fair and balance in her assessments and pronouncement in any matter. She is accommodating especially to new hire and plays an active role in ensuring that staff growth and development takes place. She is not quick to judge and take action based on what she is told by others, her approach is to me with individuals if there are concerns and to find the best way to address those concerns. There was this new nurse that was hire that was a recent graduate from nursing school. Her preceptor didn’t think she was a good fit for the unit and would expressed these concerns to the manager. The manager met with both parties and then she assigned the new nurse to a different preceptor. That nurse has shown growth and is now a value member of the team. The manager’s action sent two messages; the first being, that the ultimate decision to terminate an employee is mine to make and the second message is, I will explore other options before to help my employee to succeed. Her actions not only garnered respect for her but her unit has one of the highest staff retention in the hospital because of her leadership style.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeAs healthcare requires leaders who have the ability to inspire others with the vision of what can be achieved which was demonstrated by the manager’s action. Healthcare in the 21th century requires new visions and enhanced professional models of nursing practice and the catalyst for this transformation would be a new type of leadership, the transformational leadership.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesBrewer, C. S., Kovner, C. T., Djukic, M., Fatehi, F., Greene, W., Chacko, T. P., & Yang, Y. (2016). Impact of transformational leadership on nurse work outcomes. Journal of Advance Nursing, 72(11), 2879-2893. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/jan.13055Krepia, V., Katsaragakis, S., Kaitelidou, D., & Prezerakos, P. (2018). Transformational leadership and its evolution in nursing. Progress in Health Sciences, 8(1), 185.Marshall, E., & Broome, M. (2017). Transformational leadership in nursing: from expert clinician to influential leader (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4CollapseDr. Pollard,Transformational leadership is a conscious process to create the conditions that will enhance the realization of the desired practice. An individual can be trained to become a transformational leader provided he/she is trained to recognize the characteristics of this type of leader, to develop awareness of the creative intensity and of the factors that limit the achievement of goals and the realization of a vision. Transformational leaders create a culture of active thinking through intellectual stimulation, a culture that encourages workers to become more involved with the organization and its development.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4            Thank you for a well-written post. I agree that leaders should have the ability to inspire and create a vision for the employees to follow. The leadership styles of different leaders vary widely. Some leaders prefer to micromanage a team, while others adopt a more hands-off approach in the management of their team. Leaders can also apply a variety of techniques in their motivation of employees towards the attainment of organizational goals. The emotionally intelligent leaders recognize and understand their own emotions. For example, when a crisis occurs, they can manage them, stay calm, clearheaded, welcome constructive criticism, ask for help when needed, turn a problem into an opportunity, and suspend judgment until all the facts and evidence are collected. (Baggett & Baggett, 2005). On the other hand, transformational leaders can communicate their vision in a manner that is so meaningful and exciting that it reduces negativity and inspires commitment in the people they lead (Leach, 2005.).Like your manager, the leader in the organization I work for also possesses the leadership qualities you mentioned in your discussion post: emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. For example, she is fair and balances in her assessments and pronouncement in any matter. She is accommodating, especially to new employees, and, not quick to judge, actively ensures that staff growth and development occur. In addition to all these qualities, my organization leaders also apply a transactional leadership style. Transactional leadership involves the use of rewards by leaders to influence workers into working towards a common goal. In this theory, a transaction occurs where the leader accomplishes his goal, while workers get benefits, including a promotion, recognition, money, and other benefits (Xu, 2017).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice ReferencesBaggett, M.M., & Baggett, F.B. (2005). Move from management to high-level leadership. Nursing Management, 36(7), 12.Leach, L.S. (2005). Nurse executive transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35(5), 228-237.Xu, J. (2017). Leadership theory in clinical practice. Chinese Nursing Research, 4(4), 155- 157.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnre.2017.10.001NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Based on my previous experience of working at a union-based hospital, I would have to disagree with your opening paragraph. Strictly based on my opinion and years of experience in the float pool, which allowed me to encounter the majority of the hospital’s managers, I arrived at the conclusion that upper management’s answer to the union was to hire the most inexperienced and ineffective unit managers. Your reference to characteristics of communication and integrity were not incorporated in my following experience – a patient was admitted without a password being set up, during the next day a family member called in to get an update/create password, HIPPA guidelines made this a challenging situation, the unit manager sided with the family member to give updates and set up a password, she instructed the nurse to do so or face insubordination. The nurse reluctantly did as instructed/threatened and then the RN wrote an incident report (intimidation of management and HIPPA violation); to which the manager denied the events of the situation. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeAccording to Cornell (2020) the unit manager’s behavior best fits the leadership style of an autocratic leadership. This type of leadership is hands-on with decision making and is comfortable making decisions without input from their team. The benefit to an autocratic nurse manager is they will be effective in making quick decisions when necessary. The drawback to this style is it does not instill trust amongst team members. Damage occurs as a result, which creates a culture where team members’ insights and knowledge are stifled. A sense of descension can overtake the workplace, thus leading to what is better known as a toxic environment. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice“Quality of care is a vital element for achieving high productivity levels within healthcare organizations, and is defined as the degree to which the probability of achieving the expected health outcomes is increased and in line with updated professional knowledge and skills within health services” (Sfantou et. al., 2017). This article strikes upon the core perception of teamwork. Every person the patient comes into contact with has an impression of their overall experience. In essence, everyone is a leader within their own realm. With patient satisfaction trackers like Press-Ganey, everyone the patient encounters is now being held is accountable. The benefit to this scenario is that it’s an opportunity for different healthcare workers to be leaders in their own respect, come together as a team, and function as one unit while administering care to a patient. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesCornell, A.  (2020). 5 leadership styles in nursing. Relias. Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://www.relias.com/blog/5-leadership-styles-in-nursing.Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A. E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of leadership style towards quality of care measures in healthcare settings: A systematic review. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040073NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice RE: Discussion – Week 4CollapsePeter & Timothy-I found both of your point/counterpoints discussions very interesting. Especially since I have experienced both(well, more than two) types of leaders in both a union facility and non-union.Timothy- here is an interesting question I pose to you: Why do you think hospital upper management would want to hire incompetent, inexperienced managers in a facility that has a union? (I’ll give you my hypothesis below).Peter- Interesting post about your current leadership, however I would have a little issue with a nurse manager who would state that “they and they alone have the ability to fire a person.” In any facility, that is simply not the case. There MUST be an HR component  to comply with all FLSA laws. I find that if he/she is actually saying that, they would unfortunately fall under the extremely narcissistic manager type who has delusions of grandeur. I actually used to have a manager like that- she was my chief flight nurse and was the absolute WORST manager I’ve ever had. Looking back now, while she was truly an amazing clinician and flight practitioner, she was a HORRIBLE manager. I am a manager now and my main goal is to NEVER be like she was- NEVER use that management style, the very style that you described.Timothy- back to my question: I believe that they would hire a manager who was incompetent because they (the “suits”) KNOW that this manager will screw up and will involve the union. Then upper management will terminate the middle manager, and who will look good? See where I’m going?NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4            As you mentioned, transformational leadership inspires and motivates groups of people towards a common goal (McCaffrey & Reinoso, 2016). In my organization, leadership is complicated as mandates are developed at the federal level to be executed at individual facilities across the country. The complexity of the Veterans Affairs organizational structure makes the consistent practice of transformational leadership challenging. The U.S. Department of Veteran’s Affairs charged the Veteran’s Healthcare Administration with implementing a solution to engage in transformational leadership practices at local levels, and the Clinical Nurse Leader role was introduced (Kaack et al., 2018).  The Veteran’s Healthcare Administration (VHA) implemented the CNL role in an attempt to engage employees in transformational leadership behaviors (Miltner et al., 2020)NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice. The clinical nurse leader in the VHA is dedicated to communicating the organization’s vision and motivating nursing staff specifically to achieve this vision at a facility level.  Specifically, CNL encounter challenges transforming the organization within my organization related to insufficient staff (Miltner et al., 2020). Unfortunately, until we are able to improve recruitment and retention of this position, transformational leadership practices will continue to struggle at both macro and microsystem levels. Great post!NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesKaack, L., Bender, M., Finch, M., Borns, L., Grasham, K., Avolio, A., Clausen, S., Terese, N. A., Johnstone, D., & Williams, M. (2018). A clinical nurse leader (cnl) practice development model to support integration of the cnl role into microsystem care delivery. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(1), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.06.007McCaffrey, R., & Reinoso, H. (2016). Transformational leadership: A model for advanced practice holistic nurses. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 35(4), 397–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898010116685242Miltner, R. S., Haddock, K., Patrician, P. A., & Williams, M. (2020). Implementation of the clinical nurse leader role in the veterans health administration. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1097/naq.0000000000000428 RE: Discussion – Week 4Reponse #1I believe transformational leadership in any organization is beneficial.  I think this type of leadership builds trust and employees are more than likely to stick around. James Mac Gregor Burns, an authority on leadership studies defined transformational leadership as “a process by which leaders raise the aspirations and motivations of others to higher levels by appealing to higher ideals and values (Renjith, et al., 2015).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeTransformational leaders are generally energetic, enthusiastic, and passionate (Cherry, 2020). Those are the types of leaders people want to work for and work hard for.ReferencesCherry, K. (2020, March 4). How do transformational leaders inspire and motivate followers? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-transformational-leadership-2795313Renjith, Vishnu & G, Renu & George, Anice. (2015). TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN NURSING. International Journal of Scientific Research & Management Studies. 2. 112-118.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4- Response-1Great post! It sounds like you work with an amazing leader. Transformational leaders are known to encourage the motivation and positive development of their employees, as well as impacting the how they perceive their jobs, and changing the understanding of what is important. Your manager appears to have emotional intelligence, which is an important characteristic of effective and successful leaders (Broome & Marhsall, 2021)NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice. The transformational leadership style is a relational leadership style, so it makes sense that your manager’s solution to a new employee orientation would be to see if the employee would have better success if they were oriented with someone with a different style of teaching, as transformational leaders provide environments suitable for employees to innovative work behaviors (Asfar & Umrani, 2020). Not only do transformational leaders endorse creativity and develop new ideas and solutions with regards to organizational structures, as well as processes and practices, but they develop enthusiasm among employees to think outside of the box (Asfar & Umrani, 2020).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesAfsar, B., & Umrani, W. A. (2020). Does thriving and trust in the leader explain the link betweentransformational leadership and innovative work behaviour? A cross-sectionalsurvey. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(1), 37–51. https://doiorg.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1744987119880583Broome, M., & Marshall, E. S. (2021). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expertclinician to influential leader (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.  RE: Discussion – Week 4Week 4 Response 2I see the third message behind the manager actions you described in your scenario – leadership development of preceptors. Preceptors, just like managers, may have an eighter positive or negative effect on a new graduate’s level of confidence and effectiveness when on her own (Kim & Kim, 2020). Preceptors themselves, especially during these unprecedented times, work under pressure, and their level of emotional wellbeing will affect the way they interact with staff. Transition into practice from nursing school is considered challenging for new nurses, and the interaction with their preceptors will influence that experience (Dwyer et al., 2019). According to Dwyer et al. (2019), unfortunately, the levels of burnout and turnover among novice nurses continue to be disturbingly high, and well-developed and supported preceptors may make a difference. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferences Dwyer, P. A., Hunter Revell, S. M., Sethares, K. A., & Ayotte, B. J. (2019). The influence of psychological capital, authentic leadership in preceptors, and structural empowerment on new graduate nurse burnout and turnover intent. Applied Nursing Research, 48, 37–44. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2019.04.005Kim, H., & Kim, K. (2019). Impact of self‐efficacy on the self‐leadership of nursing preceptors: The mediating effect of job embeddedness. Journal of Nursing Management (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), 27(8), 1756–1763. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/jonm.12870NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4      Great post! I do agree that connection is key in transformational leadership. Simply defined, transformational leadership is a process through which leaders influence others by changing the understanding of others of what is important (Broome & Marshall, 2021). Making that connection as a leader influences the action of others. For example, when asked to come in for an extra shift, 9 times out of 10 I would say no unless I have a connection with the person asking and would come in to help out. You also touch on the reason why staff nurses leave is due to lack of leadership support. This is so significant as nurse retention is an ongoing issue in many organizations. For many nurses, acknowledging these issues will promote retention and job satisfaction. The implications for management are to implement changes now to create a healthy work environment that will recruit and retain nurses to secure their position in the future (Ritter, 2011).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesBroome, M., & Marshall, E.S. (2021). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert clinician to influential leader (3rd ed.) New York, NY: SpringerRitter, D. (2011). The relationship between healthy work environments and retention of nurses ina hospital setting. Journal of Nursing Management, 19(1), 27-32.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4 I genuinely enjoyed your post.  I feel like so much going on in healthcare is negative and your post was a breath of fresh air reading about your experience with effective management. Transformational leadership has a positive impact on job satisfaction (Eliyana, & Ma’arif, 2019). You demonstrate that your manager exhibits the traits of a transformational leader.  This type of leadership not only produces job satisfaction but also increased job performance (Buil, Martinez, & Matute, 2019).  Thank you for your post.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeBuil, I., Martínez, E., & Matute, J. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 77, 64-75.Eliyana, A., & Ma’arif, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Week 4 Main Post NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeAs Micheal Jordan transition from from a successful basketball player to a so-so owner of a basketball team a phrase was quickly coined, “MJ on the court is not the same as MJ in the box office”. Simply translate, leadership is not a skill that comes easy. In fact, leadership is viewed as a multidimensional process. The core components include directing others to be successful with their activities, all the while developing their technique of motivating others to achieve excellence. One of the main characteristics includes passion. Passion as defined means a strong controlled emotion. Passions is also believed to be something that you can not teach. The profession of nursing has consistently been rated the most trusted worker. The leadership trait is a key skill applied as a nurse to help both patient care as well as coworker relations (Durmus & Kırca, 2019). When you stop to think about the previously stated traits of a leader, it can be applied to various aspects of life. Satisfaction as a leader can achieved as a parent of young children, a child of elderly parents guiding other siblings through the decisions to be made, or as a preceptor training a new grad student; to name a few. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeNow that the characteristics of a leader have been defined, lets look at the styles of nurse leaders. According the the American Association of Nurse Assessment Coordination (AANAC), there are 5 types of leaders; which include Transformational, Democratic, Laissez-Faire, Autocratic, and Servant (AANC, n.d.). Transformational leadership is a management style that motivates employees to take ownership of their performance. The democratic leadership style welcomes and encourages input and communication from the team. Laissez-faire leadership in nursing is mostly associated with new leaders and is described to as a hands-off approach. The autocratic leadership is hands on with decision making and is comfortable making decisions without input from their team. Servant leadership refers to leaders who influence and motivate others by building relationships (Cornell, 2020). From my personal experience of working in a float pool, I have encountered all types of nurse leaders listed above. With the exception of laissez-faire, I am of the opinion that a balance of the remaining four styles offers a variety of approaches to different situations. There should not be a cookie cutter application of leadership styles to something as diverse as the profession of nursing. NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice As a result of knowing the characteristics that makes a leader as well as the different types of leaders, the next logical step is to measure the validity by the use of evidence based practice (EBP). “Leadership is especially important in that it is the driving factor behind other A-EBPs—leaders who understand the importance of EBDM are more likely to prioritize workforce development and emphasize a specific kind of organizational culture, effecting further growth within their LHD” (Duggan et.al., 2015). My biggest criticism about the bachelors program was that there was no class on how to manage. Hence, getting thrown into a charge nurse role was overwhelming. It good to know at the graduate level a class exists that covers leadership styles and is backed by EBP. The effectiveness of a leader’s practice isn’t necessarily based on the style, but rather how coherent they are with their approach. My hiring manger as a  new grad spent less than two years at the bedside and then used his advanced education experience to escalate through various roles of clin-spec, department educator, and unit manager, all the while attaining his PhD.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesAAPACN. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.aapacn.org/resources/leadership-and-management/?sfvrsn=2. Cornell, A.  (2020). 5 leadership styles in nursing. Relias. Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://www.relias.com/blog/5-leadership-styles-in-nursing.  Duggan, K., Aisaka, K., Tabak, R. G., Smith, C., Erwin, P., & Brownson, R. C. (2015). Implementing administrative evidence-based practices: Lessons from the field in six local health departments across the United States. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1). doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0891-3. Retrieved from https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-015-0891-3 NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeDurmus, S. C., & Kırca, K. (2019, November 4). Leadership styles in nursing. IntechOpen. Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/69876.  RE: Discussion – Week 4 First ResponseI feel that a blend of Laissez-Faire and Autocratic leadership styles exist within the top levels of my hospital. Changes are made with little to no input from core staff and recently with a staffing crisis, there was not much talk of solutions within the “higher-ups”. Companies and employers that can build a sense of community and trust have more positive connections financially, educationally, and has better performance scores (Duggan et al, 2015).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeFor my personal leadership style, I would like to be a blend of democratic and servant with a sprinkle of autocratic. I would want my team to feel like their opinions and concerns matter and would welcome input from them. My goal is to stay within a certain radius of my current employer and continue building on relationships I have made throughout my eight years; if this possibility becomes a reality, I have a good chance at being an effective servant type of leader (Broome & Marshall, 2020). Finally, for the autocratic sprinkling, I would feel comfortable making decisions on matters that staff would not want to be bothered with at home.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesBroome, M.E., Marshall, E.S. (2020). Transformational Leadership in Nursing (3rd Edition).        Springer Publishing LLC. https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/books/9780826135056Duggan, K., Aisaka, K., Tabak, R.G., Smith, C., Erwin, P. Brownson, R.C. (2015).           Implementing administrative evidence-based practices: Lessons from the field in six local health departments across the United States. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 1-9.         https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0891-3NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Thank you for your post! Effective leadership is necessary to succeed in any business model, but it is especially true in healthcare when it’s critical to provide evidence-based high-quality care. There are specific competencies described in the literature that are needed to be a successful leader.  These include superior communications skills, active advocacy for nurses and patients, and supporting collaborative interactions. Wisser and Massey (2019) further assert that these leaders must possess self-awareness, be open to diverse opinions, and strive for objectivity. Hughes (2019) states that relationship-oriented leadership is associated with greater job satisfaction, commitment, and productivity. These leaders can help associates feel empowered and often lead to higher retention rates.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeI agree with you that a leader’s success is not necessarily dependent upon the style of leadership. The literature suggests that extroverted personalities function best in styles such as the much-lauded transformational style of leadership. However, evidence suggests that up to half of Americans are introverts. This has made me wonder if introverted nurses can be as effective as those who are extroverted. Some studies suggest that introverted leaders may deliver better outcomes because they create a culture of value and motivate staff to be proactive with new ideas (Wisser & Massey, 2019).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeYour personal experience with leadership reinforces my belief that there is no one-size-fits-all for leadership. It’s not style specific any more than it is personality specific and each leader needs to emphasize their strengths while minimizing their weaknesses.KimHughes, V. (2019). Nurse leader impact. Nursing Management, 50(4), 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.numa.0000554338.47637.23Wisser, K. Z., & Massey, R. L. (2019). Mastering your distinctive strengths as an introverted nurse leader. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 43(2), 123–129. https://doi.org/10.1097/naq.0000000000000343NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Response #2I had to respond to your post because you mentioned Michael Jordan and he is my all-time favorite. I watched the Netflix series, The Last Dance, and they talked about his leadership style.  It is described as pacesetting, it is all about high standards and motivating everyone on the team to meet those standards (Leaders of Evolution [LoE], 2020). This type of leadership would be smart to adopt in the nursing community.     We should hold our self to high standards, and motivate our teams to rise to that level. I love how you talk about how leadership should not be a cookie cutter application.  Leadership is not a one size fits all type of thing.  Overall, a good leader will incorporate a healthy balance of managing people and process in their daily routines by ensuring staff is recognized for quality improvements, that negative and positive feedback is encouraged in improving patient care, and a physical presence is maintained (Relias, 2020).     I have a hard time respecting any leader who can not do my job or tell me how to do my job.  In my own opinion,  any person who holds a leader role should know the answers to any questions staff should have, or know the appropriate channels to find out.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesLeaders of Evolution. (2020, July 2). Breaking down michael jordan’s competitive leadership style | leaders of evolution. https://leadersofevolution.com/breaking-down-michael-jordans-competitive-leadership-style/Relias. (2020, April 6). Nursing leadership: what is it and why is it important? https://www.relias.com/blog/nursing-leadershipRE: Discussion – Week 4CollapseI think experience can contribute to effectiveness. Experience in itself is practice and as the saying goes “practice makes perfect”. My wife jokes she had to kiss enough toads before she found her prince. Motivation is the desire to attain something more from your career, like becoming a nurse practitioner. Gaining knowledge runs a parallel with education. Risk-taking is something one must be careful with; I would encourage a calculated risk-taking technique. In essence, the most important component to advancement as a leader is to be flexible.  Learning styles, processing feedback, and maintaining a fresh approach are traits I would like to incorporate.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeRE: Discussion – Week 4Nursing LeadershipEffective nursing leadership impacts not only quality of care measures but also staff retention. Healthcare today is an ever-changing environment with technological advancements and the implementation of improved quality measures. The staff shortages that many facilities experience is often a critical issue for these same facilities. Poor leadership often results in poor work organization, untenable stress levels, and increased turnover (Poels et al., 2020). There is abundant literature discussing the importance of effective leadership and the different leadership styles in nursing. Kiwanuka et al. (2020) assert that there are three unique leadership styles: transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. Transformational leadership is frequently touted as the most desirable leadership style and is meant to increase motivation through intellectual stimulation and idealized influence. Transactional leadership offers rewards that are contingent upon obligation fulfillment and involves active management by the leader. Laissez-faire leadership is characterized by avoidance and inaction when subordinates require situational leadership.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeBroome and Marshal (2021) state that authentic leadership is a foundation for becoming a transformational leader by focusing on the “self-development potential of the leader.” The behaviors of these leaders reflect a moral compass that helps them articulate the needs of their subordinates.Autocratic leadership is a traditional style of leadership that emphasizes hierarchy and allows for little input by subordinates. This style focuses on task completion and views people as interchangeable instruments that perform the task-defined works. Autocratic leaders engage in minimal communication with associates beyond assigning duties (Kaiser, 2016).NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeInsightsThe behavior of leaders can inspire subordinates to be dedicated, energized, and productive in the pursuit of shared goals. Or they can cause those same subordinates to disengage and exhibit antipathy towards completing those same goals. The adopted leadership style is influenced by personal experiences, convictions, and principles (Aloqlah, 2021). These unique and learned personal traits can either benefit the transformational leader or need to be overcome before the leader can successfully lead.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeAnother insight is that most leaders are a combination of all of these styles. There are times when autocratic leadership is needed to complete a task. There are other times when the leader’s personal life may cause them to disengage and revert to a laissez-fair style of leading temporarily. Some jobs may be best completed by offering a reward to initiate a positive response to a new way of doing things. The key for many leaders is to be transformational enough so that subordinates understand that communication is desired and encouraged. If the leader has an off day, it’s an anomaly and won’t cause dissent.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeLeadersI have not yet been lucky enough to have worked under a transformational leader. Instead, I have experienced a laissez-faire medical director, an autocratic nurse supervisor, and a primarily transactional pharmacy manager.The KIC medical director was an amazing physician that collaborated well with her colleagues. Her nurses loved her, and she garnered the respect of both the administration and the support staff. She was also conflict-averse. The nurse supervisor of KIC could be brutal to the nurses under her supervision. She was capricious and played clear favorites. There was very little communication between her and the other nursing staff.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeMany complaints were brought to the medical director from the front desk, the nursing staff, the pharmacy staff, and patients. Unfortunately, the medical director did not feel comfortable confronting or holding the nursing supervisor responsible for her more egregious behavior. Two nurse practitioners (NP) left the clinic during that time. And, it’s important to note that though the turnover is high at this facility, these NPs remained in Ketchikan and continued to practice in that capacity. The most skilled and essential front desk employee transferred to a non-medical department of the clinic. The nursing supervisor was in direct conflict with two pharmacists on multiple occasions, but she experienced no disciplinary actions. The situation was resolved by the administration and not the medical director. As she was often out of the clinic for personal time, IT was instructed to document her time on personal errands versus the time she was claiming for her paycheck. She was terminated for payroll infractions, but only after she killed clinic morale.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeThe medical director’s leadership style also affected morale as her subordinates did not feel that she would protect them from their immediate supervisor. As a result, it was a bad time at the clinic, and it was more than six months before the clinic was fully staffed again.The pharmacy manager awarded technician compliance with monthly rewards. There would be a work goal every week, and the technicians would receive points for specific tasks, and at the end of every month, the pharmacy supervisor would reward a gift card. This isn’t the best style of leadership as it creates an unhealthy link between work and reward.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeConclusionI’ve never been a pharmacy supervisor, but every pharmacist works in the capacity of manager during every shift. When I work in that capacity, I feel that I am a little bit of all of these leadership styles. I try to lead by example by working hard and not expecting my subordinates to do all the work. I use my position to step between the technicians and irate customers so that they don’t take the brunt of unacceptable behavior. I try not to play favorites or to play one technician off against another. If a technician has concerns over something, I try to listen to their criticisms or concerns. I have also bought pizza for the staff as a thank you (or reward) for doing a great job. However, there are times when I am authoritative and times when I ignore what is going on between technicians because I don’t want to deal with it. The key is to strive to be transformational but understand that it is an ongoing process. I would love to work for a supervisor that is always transformational, but I know I can still respect them and perform for them even when they are not.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeReferencesAloqlah, R. M. (2021). The effect of leadership styles on improving communication method among academic administrators. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(1), 396–410. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i1.5539Broome, M. & Marshall, E.S. (2021). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert clinician to influential leader (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in PracticeKaiser, J. A. (2016). The relationship between leadership style and nurse-to-nurse incivility: Turning the lens inward. Journal of Nursing Management, 25(2), 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12447Kiwanuka, F., Nanyonga, R. C., Sak‐Dankosky, N., Muwanguzi, P. A., & Kvist, T. (2020). Nursing leadership styles and their impact on intensive care unit quality measures: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(2), 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13151Poels, J., Verschueren, M., Milisen, K., & Vlaeyen, E. (2020). Leadership styles and leadership outcomes in nursing homes: A cross-sectional analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05854-7 NURS 6053 Week 4 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice

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