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Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment

Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentNR350 Research in NursingLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and SummaryRapid Critical Appraisal Checklist Article  References PurposeHypothesisStudy Question(s) VariablesIndependent(I)Dependent(D) if Applicable Study Design/Methods SampleSize &Selection Data CollectionMethods  Major Finding(s)1(SAMPLE ARTICLE) Smith, Lewis (2013),What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112. How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes?Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment D-Dietary modificationsI-Education Quantitative N- 18Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA Focus Groups Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications.1              2              3              4     Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment        5ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREDeveloping PICOT for Wait Times in The ER.West Coast UniversityNURS 350 Research in NursingSeptember 5th, 2021 Description of the Topic and the background informationThe recent years have experienced an increase in the flow of patients in the emergency department, especially in the Western nations. This has led to the increase in the overcrowding in the emergency department thus extending the waiting times. Many factors have been linked to this phenomenon and one of them is the continuity of the primary care services. Other factors are the availability of specific clinical pathways for chronic patients; and the endowment of the personnel within the emergency departments (Vainieri et al., 2020).Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentThe overcrowding leads to severe limitations of the hospital functions. It leads to delays in the patients’ care and poor healthcare outcomes. The overcrowding is associated with the increased waiting times, and this leads to dissatisfaction from both physicians and nurses who are working under pressure. The patient is also dissatisfied with the services since it makes them wait for long to be treated. Specifically, waiting times are amongst the most important causes of emergency department patients’ dissatisfaction. The adverse effect of the long waiting times in the emergency department is the change in the perception of the patients about the quality of services they are receiving (Vainieri et al., 2020). The complaints of the dissatisfied patient are reported, and this causes more pressure on the policymakers and the hospital managers to develop effective interventions.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentThe significance of the topic to nursing practiceThe study is important to the nursing practice since it reveals the necessary changes that are required to ensure that there is improvement in emergency responses. It enables nurses or hospital management to learn about some of the factors that affect the high emergency waiting times. Some of the factors or concerns that the supervisors in the healthcare facilities can focus on are the emergency department endowment, the productivity of the staff, and the availability of the equipment that can be used to ensure that the problems are solved.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentThe study is also important since it helps in ensuring that the management can determine how the organization within the hospital facility for example the presence of the fast-tracking paths or the ability of the wards to help with rapid identification of the patients who require urgent admission. The study is also important in the nursing practice since it enables the nurse supervisors or hospital managers to determine the cause of the high admission rates and the increase in the waiting times by the patients. The managers get the opportunity of investigating a mix of problems associated with the factors the result in the patient long waiting times socially during emergencies (Lungu et al, 2019). The study is also important to the nurse practice since it guides the managers and the policymakers in developing some of the protocols that are based on the organizational choices associated with the hospital resource allocation.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentPICOT QuestionsFor the elderly patients (Population) visiting the hospital for emergency services, is triage approach (Intervention) effective than no intervention (Comparison) in the reduction of waiting times (Outcome) during emergency service (Time)?For the patients seeking emergency services (Population), does change in the patient triage and the caregiver workflow (Intervention) with the present model (Comparison) help in the reduction of the patient overcrowding and reduction in the length of stay (Outcome) for the one week stay in the facility (Time)?For the patients waiting in the emergency department (ED) (Population), will patient placement in result pending units (RPU) (Intervention) compared to no intervention (Comparison) assists in improving the emergency department patient flow by reducing the emergency waiting times and length of stay (LOS), and improve patient satisfaction (Outcomes) throughout patient stay at the hospital (Time)?Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentReferencesVainieri, M., Panero, C. & Coletta, L. Waiting times in emergency departments: a resourceallocation or an efficiency issue? BMC Health Serv Res 20, 549 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05417-wLungu, D.A., Grillo Ruggieri, T. & Nuti, S. (2019). Decision making tools for managing waiting times and treatment rates in elective surgery. BMC Health Serv Res 19, 369. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4199-6Week 6: Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and Summaryhttps://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/assignments/130196 1/3Week 6: Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and SummaryDue Oct 4 by 2:59am Points 200 Submitting a text entry box or a file uploadNURS_350_OL – NURS350-Literature Review with Rapid Critical Appraisal ChecklistsStart AssignmentFor this assignment, you will locate two research studies related to the topic and PICOT questions that you developed in Week 2. The articles must be current (within the last five years), and one article must be quantitative, and one article must be qualitative. For this assignment all articles must be related to the field of nursing.Article choice is very important, therefore:Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentArticles used for this assignment cannot be used for the other assignments. The selected articles should be original research studies. Review articles, concept analysis, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, integrative review, and systemic review articles should not be used. Mixed-methods studies should not be used.There are two parts to this assignment.Part 1: Complete a Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist (https://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/files/1750762/download? download_frd=1)Select one each: qualitative and quantitative research articles. Create a Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist for the two research articles (one column per article). Complete with brief, concise, summarized information.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentPart II: Write a summary (one- to two- pages)Identify differences between quantitative and qualitative designs and research methods. Describe the differences in your article’s quantitative and qualitative designs and methods. Carefully review the rubric before you submit. This summary is using your own words to examine the differences specifically between your articles. Use current APA Style for your summary paper and to cite your sources. Submit the checklist and summary.You must submit the research study articles along with your assignment.Review the rubric for further information on how your assignment will be graded. https://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/files/1750762?wrap=1https://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/files/1750762/download?download_frd=1 9/26/21, 6:42 PM Week 6: Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and Summaryhttps://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/assignments/130196 2/3Criteria Ratings Pts10 pts40 pts30 pts40 ptsTwo substantive research articles
(one qualitative and one quantitative) are clearly identified as original research studies.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment10 to >8.9 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsTwo quality, substantive articles (one qualitative and one quantitative) are selected and are suitable original research studies.8.9 to >7.5 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsTwo articles (one qualitative and one quantitative) are selected and are mostly substantive, but at least one is not a suitable original research study, or is not sufficiently substantive.7.5 to >5.9 pts Below ExpectationsOne article is selected and identified as qualitative or quantitative research, or it is not a suitable original research study.5.9 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsArticles are not original research; one qualitative and one quantitative article are not identified.Description of the research problem and purpose of each research article40 to >35.6 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsThe research problem and the purpose for each article are expertly examined.35.6 to >30.0 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsThe research problem and the purpose for each article are adequately examined with minor omissions or errors.30 to >23.6 pts Below ExpectationsThe research problem and the purpose for each article are vague, absent or not identified, and contain major omissions or errors.23.6 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsThe research problem and its purpose are not identified for any of the articles.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentDescription of the research methods for each research article30 to >26.7 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsAn extensive description of the variables, the sample, and the research methods is clearly presented for each article.26.7 to >22.5 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsAn adequate description of the, variables, the sample, and the research methods is presented for most articles with minor omissions or errors.22.5 to >17.7 pts Below ExpectationsAn unsatisfactory description of the variables, sample, and the research methods is presented for both articles with major omissions or errors.17.7 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsA description of the variables, the sample, and the research methods is not presented for any of the articles.Summary of the findings/conclusions/themes for each research article40 to >35.6 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsAn expertly examined investigation of the findings, themes, and conclusions for both articles is skillfully presented for each article.35.6 to >30.0 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsAn adequate investigation of the findings, themes, and conclusions for both is satisfactorily presented with minor omissions or errors.30 to >23.6 pts Below ExpectationsAn unsatisfactory investigation of the findings, themes, and conclusions for both articles is provided with major omissions or errors, or only one of the articles is investigated and presented satisfactorily.23.6 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsA description of the findings, themes, and conclusions, is not presented for either article. Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment9/26/21, 6:42 PM Week 6: Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and Summaryhttps://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu/courses/8099/assignments/130196 3/3Total Points: 200Criteria Ratings Pts60 pts10 pts10 ptsDescription of the similarities and differences among the research articles60 to >53.4 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsThe description of the similarities and differences among the research articles is clear and thorough.53.4 to >45.0 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsThe description of the similarities and differences among the research articles is adequate with minor omissions or errors.45 to >35.4 pts Below ExpectationsThe description of the similarities and differences among the research articles is inadequate with major omissions or errors.35.4 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsThe description of the similarities and differences among the research articles is not provided.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentAPA 10 to >8.9 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsUses APA Style accurately and consistently to cite sources with only 1–2 errors. Sources are expertly cited and are peer- reviewed, relevant sources. Meets all formatting requirements (length and style) of the assignment.8.9 to >7.5 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsUses APA Style with minor citation violations with 3–4 errors. Sources are somewhat relevant, but may be limited in scholarly nature. Meets most formatting requirements (length and style) of the assignment.7.5 to >5.9 pts Below ExpectationsReflects incomplete knowledge of APA Style with 5–6 errors. Sources are not cited, or there are many errors. Sources are not scholarly in nature. Meets most formatting requirements (length and style) of the assignment.5.9 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsDoes not use APA Style, or there are pervasive errors throughout the paper. Does not meet formatting requirements (length and style) of the assignment.Mechanics 10 to >8.9 pts Meets or Exceeds ExpectationsThe writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness; includes thorough details and information; and is extremely well organized. Punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are all correct. There are minimal to no errors.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment8.9 to >7.5 pts Mostly Meets ExpectationsThe writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness, includes sufficient details, and is well organized, but it may contain a few errors. Punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are generally correct with not many errors.7.5 to >5.9 pts Below ExpectationsThe writing lacks clarity or conciseness, contains numerous errors, and lacks organization. Errors in punctuation, spelling, and capitalization detract from the readability of the paper5.9 to >0 pts Does Not Meet ExpectationsThe writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious errors; lacks detail and relevant data and information; and is poorly organized. There are many distracting errors in punctuation, spelling, and capitalization.Appraisal and Application ofResearchEVIDENCE-BASEDFOR NURSES PRACTICE  THE PEDAGOGY Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research, Fourth Edi-tion, drives comprehension through various strategies that meet the learning needs of students while also generating enthusiasm about the topic. This interactive approach addresses different learning styles, making this the ideal text to ensure mastery of key concepts. The pedagogical aids that appear in most chapters include the following:Chapter Objectives These objectives provide instructors and students with a snapshot of the key information they will encounter in each chapter. They serve as a checklist to help guide and focus study.Key Terms Found in a list at the beginning of each chapter and in bold within the chapter, these terms will create an expanded vocabulary in evidence-based practice.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentAt the end of this chapter, you will be able to:Key termsCHAPter OBJeCtiVes‹ Define evidence-based practice (EBP) ‹ List sources of evidence for nursing practice‹ Identify barriers to the adoption of EBP and pinpoint strategies to overcome them‹ Explain how the process of diffusion facilitates moving evidence into nursing practice‹ Define research ‹ Discuss the contribution of research to EBP‹ Categorize types of research ‹ Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research approaches‹ Describe the sections found in research articles‹ Describe the cycle of scientific development‹ Identify historical occurrences that shaped the development of nursing as a science‹ Identify factors that will continue to move nursing forward as a science‹ Discuss what future trends may influence how nurses use evidence to improve the quality of patient care‹ Identify five unethical studies involving the violation of the rights of human subjectsabstract applied research barriers basic research cycle of scientificdevelopment deductive reasoning descriptive research discussion section early adopters empirical evidence evidence-based practice(EBP) explanatory researchinductive reasoning innovation introduction Jewish Chronic DiseaseHospital study laggards list of references methods section model of diffusion ofinnovations Nazi experiments Nuremberg Code predictive research pyramid of evidencequalitative research quantitative research replication study research research utilization results section review of literature theoretical framework theory Tuskegee study Willowbrook studies9781284048902_CH01_Pass2.indd 2 10/05/14 2:56 AM Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentCritical Thinking Exercises As an integral part of the learning process, the authors present scenarios and questions to spark insight into situations faced in practice.Test Your Knowledge These questions serve as benchmarks for the knowledge acquired throughout the chapter.After an outcome has been selected and measured, data are compiled and evaluated to draw conclusions. Demonstrating the effectiveness of an innovation is a challenge, and conclusions must not extend beyond the scope of the data. Evaluation is facilitated when appropriate outcomes and associated indicators are chosen. If the outcome is not clearly defined, then the measurements and subsequent evaluation will be flawed. For example, suppose that you are a member of an interdisciplinary team that has developed a nursing protocol that reduces the amount of time the patient remains on bed rest after a cardiac catheterization procedure from 6 hours to 4 hours. The outcome selected is absence of bleeding from the femoral arterial puncture site.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment.  No other indicators are measured. The results obtained after implementing the protocol revealed that there was an increase in bleeding at the femoral arterial site in the 4-hour bed rest patients compared to the 6-hour bed rest patients. Before concluding that a shorter bed rest time leads to an increase in femoral bleeding, a few additional questions need to be considered. First, was absence of bleed- ing defined in a measurable way? Because bleeding might be interpreted in several different ways, a precise definition of bleeding should have been provided to ensure consistency in reporting. Second, when should patients be assessed for absence of bleeding? Is the absence of bleeding to be assessed when the patient first ambulates or at a later time? Input from the staff prior to changing the nursing protocol could have clarified these questions, resulting in more reliable results.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentAnother consideration in outcome evaluation is to obtain data relative to current practice for comparison purposes. To document the need for a practice change and to support a new protocol, baseline data might need to be collectedtEst YOur knOWlEdgE 18-3true/False1. Baseline data are unimportant in outcome measurement.2. Precise description of indicators is essential.3. For complex analyses, the assistance of a statistician may be needed.4. Input from staff can help clarify outcome measurement.How did you do? 1. F; 2. T; 3. T; 4. TFYiAfter an outcome has been selected and measured, data are compiled and evaluated to draw conclusions. Evaluation is facilitated when appropriate outcomes and associated indicators are chosen— conversely, if the outcome is not clearly defined, then the measurements and subsequent evaluation will be flawed.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment498 ChaptER 18 Evaluating Outcomes of Innovations9781284048902_CH18_Pass2.indd 498 17/05/14 10:29 AMtreatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, fami- lies, communities, and populations” (ANA, 2003, p. 6). From the early days of the profession, students have been taught that a scientific attitude and method of work combined with “experience, trained senses, a mind trained to think, and the necessary characteristics of patience, accuracy, open-mindedness, truthfulness, persistence, and industry” (Harmer, 1933, p. 47) are essential components of good practice. Harmer goes on to say, “Each time this habit of looking, listening, feeling, or thinking is repeated it is strengthened until the habit of observation is firmly established” (p. 47). This still holds true today. Benner (1984) studied nurses in practice and concluded that to become an expert nurse one has to practice nursing a minimum of 5 years. There are no shortcuts to becoming an expert in one’s field. The development of knowledge and skill takes time and work. As nurses encounter new situations, learning takes place. Nursing knowledge develops and is refined as nurses practice (Waterman, Webb, & Williams, 1995)Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment. In this way, nurses adapt theories to fit their practices. Unfortunately, much that is learned about theory during practice remains with the nurse because nurses rarely share their practice expertise through conference presentations and publications. The discipline will be enriched when nurses engage more formally in disseminating their knowledge about theory in practice.The Relationships Among Theory, Research, and Practice Practice relies on research and theory and also provides the questions that require more work by theorists and researchers. Each informs and supports the other in the application and development of nursing knowledge. When the relationships among theory, research, and practice are in harmony, the discipline is best served, ultimately resulting in better patient outcomes (Maas, 2006). The relationships are dynamic and flow in all directions.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentCRiTiCAL THinking ExERCisE 5-2A nurse on a surgical floor observes that several new approaches are being used to dress wounds. She observes that some methods appear to promote healing faster than others do. While reviewing the research literature, she is unable to locate any research about the dressings she is using. How might she go about testing her theory that some methods are better than others? Can this be done deductively, inductively, or using mixed methods? Are any theories presently available related to wound healing, and if so, where might she locate these? What concepts might be important in forming the question? 5.1 How Are Theory, Research, and Practice Related? 1419781284048902_CH05_Pass2.indd 141 10/05/14 2:44 AMFYI Quick tidbits and facts are pulled out in chapter margins to highlight important aspects of the chapter topic.THE PEDAGOGY iiiLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment Rapid Review This succinct list at the end of the chapter compiles the most pertinent and key information for quick review and later reference.Apply What You Have Learned This outstanding feature applies newly acquired knowledge to specific evidence-based practice scenarios and research studies.apparent. Organizing the review with a grid is a positive strategy to overcome the barrier of lack of time because it reduces the need to repeatedly sort through articles during future discussions. Also, within this text’s digital resources, you will find a grid to use for this exercise. Two articles (Cohen & Shastay, 2008; Tomietto, Sartor, Mazzocoli, & Palese, 2012) are summarized as an example.Read Kliger, Blegen, Gootee, and O’Neil (2009). Enter information about this article into the first two columns. In column 1, use APA format, like in the example, because this is the most commonly used style for nursing publications.Rapid Review » Today’s work environment requires that nurses be adept at gatheringand appraising evidence for clinical practice and assisting patients with healthcare information needs.» Literature reviews provide syntheses of current research and scholarly literature. A well-done literature review can provide support for EBP.» An understanding of the scientific literature publication cycle provides a basis for making decisions about the most current information on a topic.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment» Primary sources are original sources of information presented by the people who created them. Secondary sources are resulting commentar- ies, summaries, reviews, or interpretations of primary sources.» Many research journals involve peer review.» There are many ways to categorize sources. Scholarly, trade, and popular literature is one way. Another categorizing system involves periodicals, journals, and magazines.» There are four types of review: narrative, integrative, meta-analysis, and systematic.» Understanding how sources are structured can simplify a search of the literature.» Sources can be identified through both print indexes and electronic data- bases. Topics, subject matter, and format may vary but all include citation information.» Helpful strategies to use when conducting a search include cita- tion chasing, measurements of recall and precision, keyword and controlled vocabulary searches, Boolean operators, truncation,4.5 Keeping It Ethical 1299781284048902_CH04_Pass2.indd 129 10/05/14 2:32 AMreFerenCes Aitken, L. M., Hackwood, B., Crouch, S., Clayton, S., West, N., Carney, D., &Jack, L. (2011). Creating an environment to implement and sustain evidence based practice: A developmental process. Australian Critical Care, 24, 244–254.American Medical Association. (1998). Information from unethical experiments (CEJA Report 5–A-98). Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn .org/resources/doc/code-medical-ethics/230a.pdfAmerican Nurses Association. (2010). National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators: Guidelines for data collection on the American Nurses Association’s National Quality forum endorsed measures: Nursing Care Hours per Patient Day, Skill Mix, Falls, Falls with Injury. Retrieved from http://www.odh.ohio.gov/~/media/ODH/ASSETS/Files/dspc/health%20 care%20service/nursestaffing7-13-10materials.ashxBarnsteiner, J., & Prevost, S. (2002). How to implement evidence-based practice. Some tried and true pointers. Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 28(2), 18–21.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentBarta, K. M. (1995). Information-seeking, research utilization, and barriers to research utilization of pediatric nurse educators. Journal of Professional Nursing, 11, 49–57.Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.aPPlY What YOu havE lEarnEDSign into a database for nursing literature (i.e., CINAHL, ProQuest, PubMed). For this chapter, you will need to obtain the following two articles:Pipe, T. B., Kelly, A., LeBrun, G., Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., & Robinson, C. (2008). A prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in hospitalized patients. MEDSURG Nursing, 17, 247–257.Flanagan, J. M., Carroll, D. L., & Hamilton, G. A. (2010). The long-term lived experience of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. MEDSURG Nursing, 19, 113–119.One of these articles used qualitative methods, and the other used quantitative methods. Identify which is which. After you have done that, for each article identify the various sections that make up a research article. You may want to share these articles with nurses during your next clinical experience and consider ways the recommendations can be incorporated into practice.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment , In c.36 CHAPter 1 What Is Evidence-Based Practice?9781284048902_CH01_Pass2.indd 36 10/05/14 2:56 AMiv THE PEDAGOGY  Case Examples Found in select chapters, these vignettes illustrate research questions and studies in actual clinical settings and provide critical thinking challenges.Some researchers claim their work is nursing research because the researcher is a nurse or because the researcher studied nurses. But it is the focus on nurs- ing practice that defines nursing research. The mere fact that the research was conducted by a nurse or that nurses were studied does not necessarily qualify the research as nursing research. Historically, and even today, approaches to practice are often based on “professional opinion” when research is absent. Case Example 5-1 provides such a historical illustration. It also demonstrates the value of systematically studying the effects of interventions.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentCAsE ExAmPLE 5-1Early methods of Resuscitation: An Example of Practice Based on Untested TheoryT hroughout the past century, nursing students have been taught how to resuscitate patients who stop breathing. As early as 1912, students were taught a variety of methods for providing artificial respiration. It was theorized that moving air in and out of the lungswould be effective. One of these techniques was designed for resuscitating infants. Byrd‘s Method of Infant Resuscitation (Goodnow, 1919) directed the nurse to hold the infant‘s legs in one hand, and the head and back in the other. The nurse would then double the child over by pressing the head and the knees against the chest. Then the nurse would extend the knees to undouble the child. This would be repeated, but “not too rapidly” (Goodnow, 1919, p. 305). At intervals, the nurse would dip the child into a mustard bath in the hope that this would also stimulate respiration. The nurse would continue this until help arrived.Other methods of artificial respiration taught included Sylvester‘s method for adults (Goodnow, 1919). The patient was placed flat on his back. The nurse would grasp the patient‘s elbows and press them close to his sides, pushing in the ribs to expel air from the chest. The arms would then be slowly pulled over the head, allowing the chest to expand. The arms would be lowered to put pressure on the chest, and the cycle was then repeated. This was to be done at the rate of 18 to 20 cycles per minute.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentBy 1939, postmortem examinations after unsuccessful resuscitations showed veins to be engorged while the arteries were empty (Harmer & Henderson, 1942). Although this evidence indicated other factors needed to be considered, resuscitation techniques continued to focus only on the respiratory system. The same methods of resuscitation that were in use in 1919 were still being taught in 1942. Although students were still being taught the Sylvester method, they were also learning the new “Schäfer method” (Harmer & Henderson, 1942, p. 9401). This method involved placing the patient in a prone position. The nurse would straddle the thighs, facing the patient‘s head, and alternatively apply and remove pressure to the thorax.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentEventually, it was noted that what was believed to be best practice was not effective. Results of postmortem examinations indicated that something was missing in the techniques, and therefore research was begun to determine best practice. Today, nursing students are taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques based on updated research and theories.136 CHAPTER 5 Linking Theory, Research, and Practice9781284048902_CH05_Pass2.indd 136 10/05/14 2:44 AMfully operational in 1996. It aims to improve the effectiveness of nursing practice and healthcare outcomes. Some initiatives include conducting systematic reviews, collaborating with expert researchers to facilitate development of practice infor- mation sheets, and designing, promoting, and delivering short courses about EBP.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment2.2 keeping It EthicalEthical research exists because international, national, organizational, and individual factors are in place to protect the rights of individuals. Without these factors, scientific studies that violate human rights, such as the Nazi experiments, could proceed unchecked. Many factors of ethical research, which evolved in response to unethical scientific conduct, are aimed at pro- tecting human rights. Human rights are “freedoms, to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law” (Houghton Mifflin, 2007). Rights cannot be claimed unless they are justified in the eyes of another individual or group of individuals (Haber, 2006). When individuals have rights, others have obligations, that is, they are required to act in particular ways. This means that when nursing research is being conducted, subjects participating in stud- ies have rights, and all nurses are obligated to protect those rights.International and National Factors: guidelines for Conducting Ethical research One of the earliest international responses to unethical scientific conduct was the Nuremberg Code. This code was contained in the written verdict at the trial of the German Nazi physicians accused of torturing prisoners during medical experiments. Writers of the Nuremberg Code (Table 2-3) identified that voluntary consent was absolutely necessary for participation in research. Research that avoided harm, produced results that benefited society, and allowed participants to withdraw at will was deemed ethical. The Nuremberg Code became the standard for other codes of conduct.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentKey Terms human rights: Freedoms to which all humans are entitledobligations: Requirements to act in particular waysAt the end of this section, you will be able to:‹ Discuss international and national initiatives designed to promote ethical conduct ‹ Describe the rights that must be protected and the three ethical principles that must be upheld when conducting research‹ Explain the composition and functions of IRBs at the organizational level ‹ Discuss the nurse’s role as patient advocate in research situations2.2 Keeping It Ethical 559781284048902_CH02_Pass2.indd 55 10/05/14 4:01 AMKeeping It Ethical Relevant ethical content concludes each chapter to ensure that ethics are a consideration during every step of the nursing process.THE PEDAGOGY vLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment  Appraisal and Application ofResearchEdited by Nola A. Schmidt, PhD, RN, CNEProfessor College of Nursing and Health ProfessionsValparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaJanet M. Brown, PhD, RN Professor EmeritusCollege of Nursing and Health Professions Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaFOURTH EDITIONEVIDENCE-BASEDFOR NURSES PRACTICE  World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 info@jblearning.com www.jblearning.comJones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning.com.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentSubstantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to specialsales@jblearning.com.Copyright © 2019 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning CompanyAll rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.The content, statements, views, and opinions herein are the sole expression of the respective authors and not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and such reference shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. All trademarks displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted herein. Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research, Fourth Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentThere may be images in this book that feature models; these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the activities represented in the images. Any screenshots in this product are for educational and instructive purposes only. Any individuals and scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this product may be real or fictitious, but are used for instructional purposes only.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentThe authors, editor, and publisher have made every effort to provide accurate information. However, they are not responsible for errors, omissions, or for any outcomes related to the use of the contents of this book and take no responsibility for the use of the products and procedures described. Treatments and side effects described in this book may not be applicable to all people; likewise, some people may require a dose or experience a side effect that is not described herein. Drugs and medical devices are discussed that may have limited availability controlled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use only in a research study or clinical trial. Research, clinical practice, and government regulations often change the accepted standard in this field. When consideration is being given to use of any drug in the clinical setting, the health care provider or reader is responsible for determining FDA status of the drug, reading the package insert, and reviewing prescribing information for the most up-to-date recommendations on dose, precautions, and contraindications, and determining the appropriate usage for the product. This is especially important in the case of drugs that are new or seldom used.Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment12352-4Production Credits VP, Executive Publisher: David D. Cella Director of Product Management: Amanda Martin Product Assistant: Christina Freitas Associate Production Editor: Alex Schab Senior Marketing Manager: Jennifer Scherzay Production Services Manager: Colleen Lamy Product Fulfillment Manager: Wendy Kilborn Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Cover Design: Kristin Parker Rights & Media Specialist: Wes DeShano Media Development Editor: Troy Liston Cover Image (Title Page, Part Opener, Chapter Opener): © Madredus/Shutterstock  Printing and Binding: LSC Communications Cover Printing: LSC CommunicationsLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Schmidt, Nola A., editor. | Brown, Janet M. (Janet Marie), 1947–     editor. Title: Evidence-based practice for nurses : appraisal and application of     research / [edited by] Nola A. Schmidt and Janet M. Brown. Description: Fourth edition. | Burlington, Massachusetts : Jones & Bartlett     Learning, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017036581 | ISBN 9781284122909 Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Research–methods | Evidence-Based Nursing Classification: LCC RT81.5 | NLM WY 20.5 | DDC 610.73072–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/20170365816048Printed in the United States of America 21 20 19 18 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 https://lccn.loc.gov/2017036581 DEDICATION For Mom, whose love and support are endless.—N. A. S.To my husband, my children, and my granddaughters and grandson, who enrich my life in every way.—J. M. B. Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment © Madre dus/Sh uttersto ckContributors xix Reviewers xxi Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxixUNIT 1 Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice 1CHAPTER 1 What Is Evidence-Based Practice? 3 Nola A. Schmidt and Janet M. Brown1.1 EBP: What Is It? 3 1.2 What Is Nursing Research? 14 1.3 How Has Nursing Evolved as a Science? 23 1.4 What Lies Ahead? 31 1.5 Keeping It Ethical 34CONTENTS  CHAPTER 2 Using Evidence Through Collaboration to Promote Excellence in Nursing Practice 43 Emily Griffin and Marita G. Titler2.1 The Five Levels of Collaboration 43 2.2 Keeping It Ethical 54UNIT 2 Acquisition of Knowledge 67CHAPTER 3 Identifying Research Questions 69 Susie Adams3.1 How Clinical Problems Guide Research Questions 693.2 Developing Hypotheses 77 3.3 Formulating EBP Questions 84 3.4 Keeping It Ethical 87CHAPTER 4 Finding Sources of Evidence 93 Patricia Mileham4.1 Purpose of Finding Evidence 93 4.2 Types of Evidence 96 4.3 How Sources Are Organized 102 4.4 How to Search for Evidence 110 4.5 Keeping It Ethical 123CHAPTER 5 Linking Theory, Research, and Practice 131 Elsabeth Jensen5.1 How Are Theory, Research, and Practice Related? 1315.2 Keeping It Ethical 141xii CONTENTSLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment UNIT 3 Persuasion 147CHAPTER 6 Key Principles of Quantitative Designs 149 Rosalind M. Peters6.1 Chart the Course: Selecting the Best Design 149 6.2 What Is Validity? 155 6.3 Categorizing Designs According to Time 161 6.4 Keeping It Ethical 166CHAPTER 7 Quantitative Designs: Using Numbers to Provide Evidence 171 Rosalind M. Peters7.1 Experimental Designs 171 7.2 Quasi-Experimental Designs 177 7.3 Nonexperimental Designs 180 7.4 Specific Uses for Quantitative Designs 186 7.5 Keeping It Ethical 188CHAPTER 8 Epidemiologic Designs: Using Data to Understand Populations 193 Amy C. Cory8.1 Epidemiology and Nursing 193 8.2 Infectious Diseases and OutbreakInvestigations 195 8.3 Measures of Disease Frequency 197 8.4 Descriptive Epidemiology 200 8.5 Descriptive Study Designs 204CONTENTS xiii Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment8.6 Analytic Study Designs 208 8.7 Screening 213 8.8 Evaluating Health Outcomes and Services 215 8.9 Keeping It Ethical 216CHAPTER 9 Qualitative Designs: Using Words to Provide Evidence 221 Kristen L. Mauk9.1 What Is Qualitative Research? 221 9.2 The Four Major Types of QualitativeResearch 230 9.3 Keeping It Ethical 244CHAPTER 10 Collecting Evidence 253 Jan Dougherty10.1 Data Collection: Planning and Piloting 253 10.2 Collecting Quantitative Data 255 10.3 Validity and Reliability 263 10.4 Collecting Qualitative Data 271 10.5 Keeping It Ethical 278CHAPTER 11 Using Samples to Provide Evidence 285 Ann H. White11.1 Fundamentals of Sampling 285 11.2 Sampling Methods 290 11.3 Sample Size: Does It Matter? 299 11.4 Keeping It Ethical 302xiv CONTENTS Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentCHAPTER 12 Other Sources of Evidence 309 Cynthia L. Russell12.1 The Pyramid of the 5 Ss 309 12.2 Using the Pyramid of the 5 Ss for Evidence-BasedPractice 320 12.3 Keeping It Ethical 324UNIT 4 Decision 329CHAPTER 13 What Do the Quantitative Data Mean? 331 Rosalind M. Peters, Nola A. Schmidt, and Moira Fearncombe13.1 Using Statistics to Describe the Sample 331 13.2 Using Frequencies to Describe Samples 333 13.3 Measures of Central Tendency 337 13.4 Distribution Patterns 341 13.5 Measures of Variability 344 13.6 Inferential Statistics: Can the FindingsBe Applied to the Population? 352 13.7 Reducing Error When Deciding AboutHypotheses 355 13.8 Using Statistical Tests to Make Inferences AboutPopulations 361 13.9 What Does All This Mean for EBP? 370 13.10 Keeping It Ethical 373CHAPTER 14 What Do the Qualitative Data Mean? 379 Kristen L. Mauk14.1 Qualitative Data Analysis 379CONTENTS xv  14.2 Qualitative Data Interpretation 385 14.3 Qualitative Data Evaluation 391 14.4 Keeping It Ethical 396CHAPTER 15 Weighing In on the Evidence 403 Carol O. Long15.1 Deciding What to Do 403 15.2 Appraising the Evidence 405 15.3 Clinical Practice Guidelines: Moving Ratings andRecommendations into Practice 414 15.4 Keeping It Ethical 417UNIT 5 Implementation 423CHAPTER 16 Transitioning Evidence to Practice 425 Maria Young16.1 Evidence-Based Practice Models to Overcome Barriers 42516.2 Creating Change 435 16.3 Keeping It Ethical 443CHAPTER 17 Developing Oneself as an Innovator 449 Diane McNally Forsyth17.1 Who Is an Innovator? 449 17.2 Developing Oneself 454 17.3 Professionalism 461 17.4 Keeping It Ethical 464xvi CONTENTSLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment UNIT 6 Confirmation 469CHAPTER 18 Evaluating Outcomes of Innovations 471 Kathleen A. Rich18.1 What Is an Outcome? 471 18.2 Choosing Outcomes 473 18.3 Evaluating the Outcomes 480 18.4 Keeping It Ethical 482CHAPTER 19 Sharing the Insights with Others 489 Janet M. Brown and Nola A. Schmidt19.1 Dissemination: What Is My Role? 489 19.2 The 3 Ps of Dissemination 491 19.3 Using Technology to DisseminateKnowledge 505 19.4 Making the Most of Conferences 507 19.5 Keeping It Ethical 509Glossary 514 Index 531CONTENTS xvii Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary AssignmentSusie Adams, PhD, RN, PMHNP, FAANP Professor and Director PMHNP Program School of Nursing Vanderbilt University Nashville, TennesseeJanet M. Brown, PhD, RN Professor Emeritus Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaAmy C. Cory, PhD, MPH, RN, CPNP, PC Associate Professor College of Nursing and Health Professions Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaJan Dougherty, MS, RN, FAAN Director Family and Community Services Banner Alzheimer’s Institute Phoenix, ArizonaMoira Fearncombe, MEd, BS Lake Barrington, IllinoisDiane McNally Forsyth, PhD, RN Professor Graduate Programs in Nursing Winona State University Rochester, MinnesotaEmily Griffin, MSN, ARNP, FNP-BC Lecturer College of Nursing University of Iowa Iowa City, IowaElsabeth Jensen, PhD, RN Associate Professor and GraduateProgram Director School of Nursing Faculty of Health York University Toronto, OntarioCONTRIBUTORSLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment Carol O. Long, PhD, RN, FPCN, FAAN Geriatric and Palliative Care Educatorand Researcher Capstone Healthcare Group Adjunct Faculty College of Nursing and Health Innovation Arizona State University Phoenix, ArizonaKristen L. Mauk, PhD, DNP, RN, CRRN, GCNS-BC, GNP-BC, FAANDirector RN-BSN and MSN Programs Colorado Christian University Lakewood, ColoradoPatricia Mileham, MA Associate Professor of Library Services, Directorof Public Service Christopher Center for Library & InformationResources Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaRosalind M. Peters, PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor College of Nursing Wayne State University Detroit, MichiganKathleen A. Rich, PhD, RN, CCNS-CSC, CNN Cardiovascular Clinical Specialist Patient Care Services La Porte Hospital La Porte, IndianaCynthia L. Russell, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, FAAN Professor School of Nursing and Health Studies University of Missouri—Kansas City Kansas City, MissouriNola A. Schmidt, PhD, RN, CNE Professor College of Nursing and Health Professions Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IndianaMarita G. Titler, PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Dean for Practice and ClinicalScholarship Rhetaugh G. Dumas Endowed Chair Department Chair Systems, Populationsand Leadership University of Michigan School of Nursing Ann Arbor, MichiganAnn H. White, PhD, MBA, RN, NE-BC Dean College of Nursing and Health Professions University of Southern Indiana Evansville, IndianaMaria Young, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC Assistant Professor Indiana University Northwest College of Health and Human Services Gary, IndianaLiterature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal and Summary Assignment

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