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Emerging Threats and Countermeasures & Disaster Effectiveness Recovery Essay

Essay 1 [Awareness] –>> Note: (due this week – Saturday morning) Examine the effectiveness of vulnerability management programs of organizations when utilizing third party vendors for threat intel or vulnerability scanning and/or device patching. Breach or incident reports are useful for this exercise. Requirements- 500 words- Proper APA formatting required, SafeAssign used.- Strictly No plagiarism.Assignment 2 (Due early next week – Monday afternoon ): Evaluate the National disaster recovery effectiveness based on case studies from the text or recent news stories and make recommendations for improvements based on your research. This portion should be a continuation of your prior week’s submission as the recommendations section.Requirements- 500 words- Proper APA formatting required, SafeAssign used.- Strictly No plagiarism.Very important message from instructor for above 2 assignments:The Final Research Essay is the recommendations section from Unit 7, so my recommendation is to focus on the topic of this week’s Essay: (Examine the effectiveness of vulnerability management programs of organizations when utilizing third party vendors for threat intel or vulnerability scanning and/or device patching. Breach or incident reports are useful for this exercise. 500 words, APA required, SafeAssign used.), but save the recommendation section for next week essay: (Evaluate the National disaster recovery effectiveness based on case studies from the text or recent news stories and make recommendations for improvements based on your research. This portion should be a continuation of your prior week’s submission as the recommendations section. 500 words, APA required, SafeAssign used.) Do not resubmit Week 7, but this is a continuation of the same research.

Cyber Attacks
Protecting National Infrastructure
Student Edition
Edward G. Amoroso
Acquiring Editor: Pam Chester
Development Editor: David Bevans
Project Manager: Paul Gottehrer
Designer: Alisa Andreola
Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier
225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission,
further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center
and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website:
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in
research methods or professional practices, may become necessary.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information or methods
described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for
whom they have a professional responsibility.
To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage
to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products,
instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Amoroso, Edward G.
Cyber attacks : protecting national infrastructure / Edward Amoroso, John R. Vacca.–Student ed.
p. cm.
Summary: “Ten basic principles that will reduce the risk of cyber attack to national infrastructure in a substantive manner”–Provided by
ISBN 978-0-12-391855-0 (hardback)
1. Cyberterrorism–United States–Prevention. 2. Computer networks–Security measures. 3. Cyberspace–Security measures. 4. Computer
crimes–United States–Prevention. 5. National security–United States. I. Vacca, John R. II. Title.
HV6773.2.A47 2012
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-0-12-391855-0
Printed in the United States of America
12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
For information on all BH publications visit our website at
Man did not enter into society to become worse than he was before, nor to have fewer rights than he had
before, but to have those rights better secured.
Thomas Paine in Common Sense
Before you invest any of your time with this book, please take a moment and look over the following
points. They outline my basic philosophy of national infrastructure security. I think that your reaction to these
points will give you a pretty good idea of what your reaction will be to the book.
1. Citizens of free nations cannot hope to express or enjoy their freedoms if basic security protections are
not provided. Security does not suppress freedom—it makes freedom possible.
2. In virtually every modern nation, computers and networks power critical infrastructure elements. As a
result, cyber attackers can use computers and networks to damage or ruin the infrastructures that
citizens rely on.
3. Security protections, such as those in security books, were designed for small-scale environments such
as enterprise computing environments. These protections do not extrapolate to the protection of
massively complex infrastructure.
4. Effective national cyber protections will be driven largely by cooperation and coordination between
commercial, industrial, and government organizations. Thus, organizational management issues will
be as important to national defense as technical issues.
5. Security is a process of risk reduction, not risk removal. Therefore, concrete steps can and should be
taken to reduce, but not remove, the risk of cyber attack to national infrastructure.
6. The current risk of catastrophic cyber attack to national infrastructure must be viewed as extremely
high, by any realistic measure. Taking little or no action to reduce this risk would be a foolish national
The chapters of this book are organized around 10 basic principles that will reduce the risk of cyber
attack to national infrastructure in a substantive manner. They are driven by experiences gained managing the
security of one of the largest, most complex infrastructures in the world, by years of learning from various
commercial and government organizations, and by years of interaction with students and academic researchers
in the security field. They are also driven by personal experiences dealing with a wide range of successful and
unsuccessful cyber attacks, including ones directed at infrastructure of considerable value. The implementation
of the 10 principles in this book will require national resolve and changes to the way computing and
networking elements are designed, built, and operated in the context of national infrastructure. My hope is
that the suggestions offered in these pages will make this process easier.
Student Edition
To make it easier to teach these basic principles in the classroom, Cyber Attacks Student Edition adds new
material developed by John R. Vacca, Editor-in-Chief of Computer and Information Security Handbook
(Morgan Kaufmann Publishers) aimed specifically at enhancing the student experience, making it appropriate
as a core textbook for instructors teaching courses in cyber security, information security, digital security,
national security, intelligence studies, technology and infrastructure protection and similar courses.
Cyber Attacks Student Edition features the addition of case studies to illustrate actual implementation
scenarios discussed in the text. The Student Edition also adds a host of new pedagogical elements to enhance
learning, including chapter outlines, chapter summaries, learning checklists, chapter-by-chapter study
questions, and more.
Instructor Support for Cyber Attacks Student Edition includes Test Bank, Lecture Slides, Lesson Plans,

Test Bank—Compose, customize, and deliver exams using an online assessment package in a free
Windows-based authoring tool that makes it easy to build tests using the unique multiple choice and
true or false questions created for Cyber Attacks Student Edition. What’s more, this authoring tool
allows you to export customized exams directly to Blackboard, WebCT, eCollege, Angel, and other
leading systems. All test bank files are also conveniently offered in Word format.
• PowerPoint Lecture Slides—Reinforce key topics with focused PowerPoints, which provide a perfect
visual outline with which to augment your lecture. Each individual book chapter has its own dedicated
• Lesson Plans—Design your course around customized lesson plans. Each individual lesson plan acts
as separate syllabi containing content synopses, key terms, content synopses, directions to
supplementary websites, and more open-ended critical thinking questions designed to spur class
discussion. These lesson plans also delineate and connect chapter-based learning objectives to specific
teaching resources, making it easy to catalogue the resources at your disposal.
The cyber security experts in the AT&T Chief Security Office, my colleagues across AT&T Labs and the
AT&T Chief Technology Office, my colleagues across the entire AT&T business, and my graduate and
undergraduate students in the Computer Science Department at the Stevens Institute of Technology have had
a profound impact on my thinking and on the contents of this book. In addition, many prominent enterprise
customers of AT&T with whom I’ve had the pleasure of serving, especially those in the United States Federal
Government, have been great influencers in the preparation of this material.
I’d also like to extend a great thanks to my wife Lee, daughter Stephanie (17), son Matthew (15), and
daughter Alicia (9) for their collective patience with my busy schedule.
1. Introduction
National Cyber Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Attacks
Botnet Threat
National Cyber Security Methodology Components
Implementing the Principles Nationally
Protecting the Critical National Infrastructure Against Cyber Attacks
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
2. Deception
Scanning Stage
Deliberately Open Ports
Discovery Stage
Deceptive Documents
Exploitation Stage
Procurement Tricks
Exposing Stage
Interfaces Between Humans and Computers
National Deception Program
The Deception Planning Process Against Cyber Attacks
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
3. Separation
What Is Separation?
Functional Separation
National Infrastructure Firewalls
DDOS Filtering
SCADA Separation Architecture
Physical Separation
Insider Separation
Asset Separation
Multilevel Security (MLS)
Protecting the Critical National Infrastructure Through Use of Separation
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
4. Diversity
Diversity and Worm Propagation
Desktop Computer System Diversity
Diversity Paradox of Cloud Computing
Network Technology Diversity
Physical Diversity
National Diversity Program
Critical Infrastructure Resilience and Diversity Initiative
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
5. Commonality
Meaningful Best Practices for Infrastructure Protection
Locally Relevant and Appropriate Security Policy
Culture of Security Protection
Infrastructure Simplification
Certification and Education
Career Path and Reward Structure
Responsible Past Security Practice
National Commonality Program
How Critical National Infrastructure Systems Demonstrate Commonality
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
6. Depth
Effectiveness of Depth
Layered Authentication
Layered E-Mail Virus and Spam Protection
Layered Access Controls
Layered Encryption
Layered Intrusion Detection
National Program of Depth
Practical Ways for Achieving Information Assurance in Infrastructure Networked Environments
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
7. Discretion
Trusted Computing Base
Security Through Obscurity
Information Sharing
Information Reconnaissance
Obscurity Layers
Organizational Compartments
National Discretion Program
Top-Down and Bottom-Up Sharing of Sensitive Information
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
8. Collection
Collecting Network Data
Collecting System Data
Security Information and Event Management
Large-Scale Trending
Tracking a Worm
National Collection Program
Data Collection Efforts: Systems and Assets
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
9. Correlation
Conventional Security Correlation Methods
Quality and Reliability Issues in Data Correlation
Correlating Data to Detect a Worm
Correlating Data to Detect a Botnet
Large-Scale Correlation Process
National Correlation Program
Correlation Rules for Critical National Infrastructure Cyber Security
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
10. Awareness
Detecting Infrastructure Attacks
Managing Vulnerability Information
Cyber Security Intelligence Reports
Risk Management Process
Security Operations Centers
National Awareness Program
Connecting Current Cyber Security Operation Centers to Enhance Situational Awareness
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
11. Response
Pre- Versus Post-Attack Response
Indications and Warning
Incident Response Teams
Forensic Analysis
Law Enforcement Issues
Disaster Recovery
National Response Program
The Critical National Infrastructure Incident Response Framework
Transitioning from NIPP Steady State to Incident Response Management
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
APPENDIX A. National Infrastructure Protection Criteria
Deception Requirements
Separation Requirements
Commonality Requirements
Diversity Requirements
Depth Requirements
Response Requirements
Awareness Requirements
Discretion Requirements
Collection Requirements
Correlation Requirements
APPENDIX B. Case Studies
John R. Vacca
Case Study 1: Cyber Storm
Case Study 2: Cyber Attacks on Critical Infrastructures—A Risk to the Nation
Case Study 3: Department of Homeland Security Battle Insider Threats and Maintain National
Cyber Security
Case Study 4: Cyber Security Development Life Cycle
Case Study 5
REVIEW. Answers to Review Questions/Exercises, Hands-On Projects, Case Projects, and
Optional Team Case Projects by Chapter
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Deception
Chapter 3: Separation
Chapter 4: Diversity
Chapter 5: Commonality
Chapter 6: Depth
Chapter 7: Discretion
Chapter 8: Collection
Chapter 9: Correlation
Chapter 10: Awareness
Chapter 11: Response
Chapter Outline
National Cyber Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Attacks
Botnet Threat
National Cyber Security Methodology Components
Implementing the Principles Nationally
Protecting the Critical National Infrastructure Against Cyber Attacks
Chapter Review Questions/Exercises
Somewhere in his writings—and I regret having forgotten where—John Von Neumann draws attention to
what seemed to him a contrast. He remarked that for simple mechanisms it is often easier to describe how they
work than what they do, while for more complicated mechanisms it was usually the other way round.
Edsger W. Dijkstra1
National infrastructure refers to the complex, underlying delivery and support systems for all large-scale
services considered absolutely essential to a nation. These services include emergency response, law
enforcement databases, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, power control networks,
telecommunications. Some national services are provided directly by government, but most are provided by
commercial groups such as Internet service providers, airlines, and banks. In addition, certain services
considered essential to one nation might include infrastructure support that is controlled by organizations
from another nation. This global interdependency is consistent with the trends referred to collectively by
Thomas Friedman as a “flat world.”2
National infrastructure, especially in the United States, has always been vulnerable to malicious physical
attacks such as equipment tampering, cable cuts, facility bombing, and asset theft. The events of September
11, 2001, for example, are the most prominent and recent instance of a massive physical attack directed at
national infrastructure. During the past couple of decades, however, vast portions of national infrastructure
have become reliant on software, computers, and networks. This reliance typically includes remote access,
often over the Internet, to the systems that control national services. Adversaries thus can initiate cyber attacks
on infrastructure using worms, viruses, leaks, and the like. These attacks indirectly target national
infrastructure through their associated automated controls systems (see Figure 1.1).
Figure 1.1 National infrastructure cyber and physical attacks.
A seemingly obvious approach to dealing with this national cyber threat would involve the use of wellknown computer security techniques. After all, computer security has matured substantially in the past couple
of decades, and considerable expertise now exists on how to protect software, computers, and networks. In
such a national scheme, safeguards such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software,
passwords, scanners, audit trails, and encryption would be directly embedded into infrastructure, just as they
are currently in small-scale environments. These national security systems would be connected to a centralized
threat management system, and incident response would follow a familiar sort of enterprise process.
Furthermore, to ensure security policy compliance, one would expect the usual programs of end-user
awareness, security training, and third-party audit to be directed toward the people building and operating
national infrastructure. Virtually every national infrastructure protection initiative proposed to date has
followed this seemingly straightforward path.3
While well-known computer security techniques will certainly be useful for national infrastructure, most
practical experience to date suggests that this conventional approach will not be sufficient. A primary reason is
the size, scale, and scope inherent in complex national infrastructure. For example, where an enterprise might
involve manageably sized assets, national infrastructure will require unusually powerful computing support
with the ability to handle enormous volumes of data. Such volumes will easily exceed the storage and
processing capacity of typical enterprise security tools such as a commercial threat management system.
Unfortunately, this incompatibility conflicts with current initiatives in government and industry to reduce
costs through the use of common commercial off-the-shelf products.
National infrastructure databases far exceed the size of even the largest commercial databases.
In addition, whereas enterprise systems can rely on manual intervention by a local expert during a
security disaster, large-scale national infrastructure generally requires a carefully orchestrated response by
teams of security experts using predetermined processes. These teams of experts will often work in different
groups, organizations, or even countries. In the worst cases, they will cooperate only if forced by government,
often sharing just the minimum amount of information to avoid legal consequences. An additional problem is
that the complexity associated with national infrastructure leads to the bizarre situation where response teams
often have partial or incorrect understanding about how the underlying systems work. For these reasons,
seemingly convenient attempts to apply existing small-scale security processes to large-scale infrastructure
attacks will ultimately fail (see Figure 1.2).
Figure 1.2 Differences between small- and large-scale cyber security.
As a result, a brand-new type of national infrastructure protection methodology is required—one that
combines the best elements of existing computer and network security techniques with the unique and
difficult challenges associated with complex, large-scale national services. This book offers just such a
protection methodology for national infrastructure. It is based on a quarter century of practical experience
designing, building, and operating cyber security systems for government, commercial, and consumer
infrastructure. It is represented as a series of protection principles that can be applied to new or existing
systems. Because of the unique needs of national infrastructure, especially its massive size, scale, and scope,
some aspects of the methodology will be unfamiliar to the computer security community. In fact, certain
elements of the approach, such as our favorable view of “security through obscurity,” might appear in direct
conflict with conventional views of how computers and networks should be protected.
National Cyber Threa…


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