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Discussion: Planning for Data Collection

Discussion: Planning for Data Collection Discussion: Planning for Data CollectionTips of Learning: Week 8Polit and Beck (2012), Chapter 12The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested is called a population. A sample is selection of a portion of the population to represent the entire population.Population: The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interestedSampling: Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire populationElement: Basic population unit about which information is collectedEstablish population characteristicsDetermine participation in studyo Maximize construct validityo Inclusiono ExclusionCosts, practical constraints, people’ ability to participate, and design considerationsResearchers usually sample from the accessible population but should identify the target population to which they want to generalize their results.Representative sample: A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the populationSampling bias: The systematic over- or under-representation of segments of the population on key variablesProbability sampling: Involves random selection of elementsORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREo Simple random samplingExample – a sample of 250 members randomly selected from a roster of ANA memberso Stratified random samplingo Cluster samplingo Multistage samplingExample – 100 inmates randomly sampled from a random selection of five federal penitentiarieso Systematic samplingExample – every 20th patient admitted to the ER between January and JuneNonprobability sampling: Does not involve selection of elements at randomo Convenience samplingExample – all the oncology nurses participating in a continuing education seminaro Snowball samplingo Quota samplingExample – the first 20 male and first 30 female patients admitted to the hospital with hypothermiao Consecutive samplingo Purposive samplingExample – 25 critical care expertsPower Analysiso The probability that a statistical test will detect a significant difference that exists – the risk of a Type I error can be calculated using power analysis.Discussion: Planning for Data Collectiono Level of significance (usually p=0.05)o Sample sizeo Power – acceptable level is .80o Effect size – the degree to which the null hypothesis is falsePolit and Beck (2012), Chapter 13For structured data, not unstructured data, researchers use formal data collection instruments that place constraints on those collecting data and those providing them.Identification prioritization of data needs – what kind of data do you need?When selecting existing instruments consider:o Conceptual stabilityo Data qualityo Costo Population appropriatenesso ReputationOpen-ended questions permit respondents to reply in narrative fashion, whereas closed-ended (or fixed-alternative) questions offer response alternatives from which respondents must choose.Increase in web based surveysStructured self-reported instrumentso Interview schedulesHigher response rateWider variety of peopleRicher dataData quality:Interpersonal skillsEase and build rapportProbingo QuestionnairesLess costlyLess time-consumingAnonymityNo risk of interviewer biasGroup administration:Most economicalMail: low response rateWeb-based surveyo Open-ended questions – people respond in their own words (example- what is it like to be a cancer survivor?)o Closed-ended question types:Discussion: Planning for Data CollectionDichotomousMultiple choiceRank orderForced choiceRatingChecklistsVisual analog scalesForced-choice questions require respondents to choose between two competing positions, rating questions ask respondents to make judgments along a bipolar dimension, checklists have several questions with the same response format, visual analog scales (VASs), which are continua used to measure subjective experiences.If including both positive and negative items on a scale, you would need to reverse score one type or the other before summing the itemsLikert type scales (example: 0- strongly disagree, 1 – disagree, 2- neutral, 3- agree, and 4- strongly agree)o Summated rating scaleo Series of statements about a phenomenono Indicate degree of agreement or disagreemento Total score is computed by summing item scores, each of which is scored for the intensity and direction of favorabilityQ sorto Set of card statements into pileso Usually 50-100 cards into 9-11 pileso Specified criteriao Can be used to study Attitudes, Personality, Psychological traitso Sorting statements into different piles along a continuumVignetteso Brief descriptions of evento Asked to react to eventso Assess respondents: Perceptions, Hypothetical behaviors, DecisionsSampling for structured observationso Time sampling involves the specification of the duration and frequency of observational periods and intersession intervals.o Event sampling selects integral behaviors or events of a special type for observation.Data collection protocols – step by step procedureso When collecting questionnaires via the mail, send follow-up remindersBiophysiologic Measureso Tie into relevance for nursing, consequences of nursing interventions; assess clinical procedures; study the correlation between physiologic functioning in patientso In vivo measurement – directly in or on living organisms; vitro – outside of the bodyTrain your data collectors!Polit and Beck (2012), Chapter 21 (22 in new text)Qualitative samples tend to be small, nonrandom, and intensively studied.o No explicit, formal criteriao Sample size determined by informational needso Decisions to stop sampling guided by data saturationo Data quality can affect sample sizeMethods of sampling in qualitative researcho Convenience (volunteer) samplingo Snowball samplingAsk participants to refer other study participantso Theoretical samplingTheory-based sampling selecting cases on the basis of their representation of important constructs and opportunistic sampling, adding new cases based on changes in research circumstances or in response to new leads that develop in the field.Need to mention saturation…and then stop enrolling subjectso Purposive samplingSelect cases that will most benefit the studySampling for representativeness or comparative valueSampling special or unique casesSampling sequentiallyHomogeneous sampling (deliberately reducing variation or diversity), typical case sampling (selecting cases that illustrate what is typical), extreme case sampling (selecting the most unusual or extreme cases), intensity sampling (selecting cases that are intense but not extreme).Discussion: Planning for Data CollectionRepresentativenesso Maximum variation samplingo Homogeneous samplingo Typical case samplingo Extreme case samplingo Intensity samplingo Stratified purposeful samplingo Reputational case samplingEthnography:o Mingling with many members of the cultureo Informal conversations with 25 to 50 informantso Multiple interviews with smaller number of key informantsPhenomenology:o Relies on very small samples (often 10 or fewer)o Participants must have experienced phenomenon of interestGrounded theory:o Typically involves samples of 20 to 30 peopleo Selection of participants who can best contribute to emerging theory (usually theoretical sampling)Generalizabilityo Researchers find findings: Relevant and Meaningfulo Three modelsExtrapolating from a sample to a populationAnalytic generalization: researchers strive to generalize from particulars to a broader conceptualizations and theories.case to care translation) Transferability involves judgments about whether findings from an inquiry can be extrapolated to a different setting or group of people.Transferability has close connections to the proximal similarity model that involves a conceptualization about which contexts are more or less like the one in the study in terms of a gradient of similarity for people, settings, times, and contexts.Polit and Beck (2012), Chapter 22 (23 in new text)Qualitative studies typically adopt flexible data collection plans that evolve as the study progresses. Self-reports are the most frequently used type of data in qualitative studies, followed by observation.Discussion: Planning for Data CollectionFieldwork Issueso Gaining participants’ trusto Pacing data collection to avoid being overwhelmed by the intensity of datao Avoiding emotional involvement with participantso Maintaining reflexivity (researcher’s awareness of themselves as part of the data they are collecting)Unstructured and loosely structured self-reportso Latitude in questions and answersBroad question: the grand tour questiono Yield rich narrative dataTypes of self-reports• Unstructured interviews• Semistructured interviews• Focus group interviews• Joint interviews• Life histories• Oral histories• Critical incidents interviewso Use of audio taping over time – decisions about problems• Diaries and journals• Think aloud method• Photo elicitation interviews• Self-report narratives on the InternetQualitative researchers sometimes collect unstructured observational data, often through participant observation. Participant observers obtain information about the dynamics of social groups or cultures within members’ own frame of reference.Preparing for the interviewo Ensure that interviewers and respondents have a common vocabulary.o Develop and word questions to be asked; become familiar with questions.o Conduct a practice interview.o Decide how to present oneself to participants.o Decide on settings for data collection.o Obtain needed supplies.Conducting the interviewo Take steps to “break the ice” to put participants at ease.o Share pertinent information about the study with participants.o Develop rapport to gain participants’ trust.o Listen intently to guide subsequent questioning.o Probe for information as needed.Discussion: Planning for Data Collectiono Be ready to handle emotionality.o Be prepared to manage crises (e.g., interruptions, equipment problems).o Achieve a positive closure.Observationso Observations tend to become more focused over time, ranging from descriptive observation (broad observations) to focused observation of more carefully selected eventso Recording observations:§ Log (field diary)§ Field notes:§ Descriptive (observational) notes§ Reflective notes:§Methodologic notes§ Theoretical notes (or analytical notes)§ Personal noteso Types of observations:§ Descriptive observation§ Focused observation§ Selective observationParticipant observers usually select events to be observed through a combination of single positioning (observing from a fixed location), multiple positioning (moving around the site to observe in different locations), and mobile positioning (following a person around a site).Enhancing credibilityo Spent time with participantso Member check – participants review the findingso World-wide reputation as a researchero Take comprehensive field notesKeough& Tanabe (2011) – survey researchResearch to gather information from a large populationSelf-report (low ranking in terms of level of evidence)Assume participants answer honestlyo What to look good – social desirabiltyResearch question drives expected outcomes and project design; takes into consideration published information on the topic and should address significance to nursingTypes:o Face-to-face interviewso US mailo Web-basedo Emailo WindshieldAfter decide on the design…consider the method of data collectionSample survey – specific population – define the target populationIf mail, tailored design methodo Friendly questionnaireo 4 contacts with first class stamps with special contacto Return envelopes with first class stampso Personal correspondenceo Token incentiveDecide: create new survey or use existing one (consider validity and reliability)Consider piloting the survey firstHave a clear plan for data management – clean your data before analysisConsider costs: web based may cost $4200 whereas mailing may cost $6200DISCUSSIONNurses and other health care professionals are often interested in assessing patient satisfaction with health care services. Imagine that you are a nurse working in a suburban primary care setting that serves 10,000 patients annually. Your organization is very interested in understanding the patient’s point of view to help determine areas of care that can be improved. With this focus in mind, consider how you would create a survey to assess patient satisfaction with the services your organization provides. You may wish to consider variables such as the ease of accessing care, patient wait time, friendliness of the staff, or the likelihood that a patient would recommend your organization to others.Discussion: Planning for Data Collectiono Write 5 questions about patient satisfactiono How would you collect this data – what methods or instruments would you use (Chapters 13 and 23)o What would be your sample size – who is your target population, how would you recruit subjectso Provide rationale for your choices and remember to talk about the validity and reliability of the questions and type of method or instrument used – highlight this with suggestions!!!These tips for the discussion its long i need just 1 page thanksPlanning for Data CollectionWrite 5 questions about patient satisfactionAnswer questions 1 to 4 using the five point scaleVery goodGoodUndecidedBadVery bad Question 1: How would you rate the difficulty in scheduling an appointment and accessing this facility?Question 2: How would you rate the speed at which you were offered medical services at this facility?Question 3: How would you rate the appearance and cleanliness at this facility?Question 4: How would you rate the medical care you received at this facility?Question 5: Are you likely to recommend the facility for other to access for medical services? (Answer either yes or no)How would you collect this data – what methods or instruments would you useData will be collected using pre-structured closed-ended questionnaires. The choice of the questionnaire, as the instrument for collecting primary data, was informed by its unique qualities as a data collection tool. Its pre-structured nature implies that the questions are set before delivery. Also, it can be delivered at a fast pace to a large number of respondents and at very low costs. The closed-ended aspect ensures that the responses are standardized to facilitate data analysis. Besides that, it presents quantitative data that can be subjected to statistical software analysis, which eases the analysis and reduces the possibility of errors (Polit& Beck, 2017).Discussion: Planning for Data CollectionWhat would be your sample size – who is your target population, how would you recruit subjectsThe target population is the patients who patronize a specific facility to receive medical care. These patients will be recruited by presenting a flyer at the registration desk of each department. The flyer will explains the study purpose and direct those who are willing to participate in the survey to complete the survey attached to the flyer and present it at the same registration desk. Before completing the survey each will be asked to voluntarily sign a consent form. The sample size will be determined using the formula presented by Taro Yamane formula as presented by GfKPolonia (2013). Applying Taro Yamane formula shows that for a total population of 10,000, the acceptable sample size is 400 patients since this number would produce a robust level of accuracy and present generalizable results.Discussion: Planning for Data Collectionn = [N / (1+N*e2)]n = [10,000 / (1+10,000*0.052)] = [10,000 / 25] = 400n = 400n – the sample size for the medical facilityN – the population size that identifies the number of patients visiting facility that has been identified as 10,000e – the acceptable sampling error, at 95% confidence level, the acceptable sampling error is 0.05 (5%).Discussion: Planning for Data Collection ReferencesGfKPolonia (2013). Analysis of sample size in consumer survey. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/db_indicators/surveys/documents/workshops/2013/pl-gfk_k._pusczak_-_sample_size_in_customer_surveys_v2_2.pdfPolit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2017).Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice (9thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Discussion: Planning for Data Collection

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