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CSS410 California State University Postpartum Care Reflection Essay

WRITING REFLECTION: On Funding Proposal and Interview and AnalysisRevise a paper– Using the comments and edits your instructors made on the paper, revise either your funding proposal or interview and analysis paper. Use track changes or highlight the changes you made within the text itself to produce a finished product and a representation of your best work.Respond to comments on the other paper – For the paper you did not choose to revise, respond to the in-text comments and general feedback made by your instructors on the paper. You may do this in a response at the end of the paper or by responding to each individual comment throughout. The idea is to show that you understand/have thought about the comments and to explain how, if you were to write this paper again, how you might write it differently.*both paper are attached**** You can pick which paper is easier for you.

Interview Report
This report is of an interview done on a respondent (friend) regarding various issues concerning
healthcare, its provision, and the respondent’s perception of healthcare. The report is divided into
two parts with the first entailing the summary and analysis of the respondent’s views, while the
second regards the interviewer’s perceptions, lessons, and comparison of individual experience
and attitude to the responses received from the interviewee.
Part One
Analysis of Social Determinants of Health
The first question presented to the responded regarded how active she was on. In response, the
respondent stated that she is active for over sixty minutes daily (00:35). She claimed that she
does a lot of exercises that involve doing more than 3,000 steps a day, moving up and
downstairs, and even running on her way home from internships. It is important to note that the
respondent does not own a car. This can be viewed as a social determinant of health because if
she had a car, she would probably not run from internships. In this case, not owning a car works
out for her because she gets to exercise and maintain a healthy life. This response paints a picture
of social class as a significant determinant in the country, even in contemporary society. The rich
tend to get pretty comfortable because they barely have to walk when going somewhere. This
leads to them neglecting their bodies, resulting in health issues. However, it is safe to say that
some wealthy people are also able to live very healthy lives by establishing routines that involve
exercising their bodies on a daily basis.
It also appeared that the responded took her personal health very seriously. In one of the
replies, as the responded was trying to illustrate an answer on how important health was to her,
she noted that it was very important to her (01:01). Just like many other Americans trying to live
happy, healthy lives, the respondent watches her diet. Most people with lifestyle diseases owe it
to a bad diet. It would be unwise to make eating fast foods a habit. The consumption of foods
with high-fat levels is also highly unhealthy as it is the source of most heart diseases. Exercise
might be a good way to keep fit, but eating healthy is just as important. It would be wise if
everyone decided to eat healthily and be role models to kids who mainly pick up on stuff their
parents do. They would pick up on eating healthy too if their parents act as good examples.
On the question of what the respondent’s best and worst experiences at a health center
were, she gave pretty valid examples (4:05). Her best experience happened to be when she was a
little kid and needed stitches on her head. The doctors were very quick to attend to her. This is
something that would encourage people to visit health centers more often. Most people hate
waiting for hours to get help at health centers. Nobody loves waiting, especially not a sick
person. On her worst experience, her response may apply to almost everyone. At some point, she
fell ill, and after the doctor did some tests on her, he made conclusions based on those tests
alone, ignoring that the patient might be suffering from something else. Once somebody falls ill,
they could be experiencing all kinds of feelings or symptoms. Most doctors tend to believe in
what they themselves can observe or prove using tests completely, ignoring any complaints by
patients. This can be one factor that can lead to people losing faith in health centers.
Health and Illness Narrative
The interview discovered many things regarding how free the respondent was on various issues.
The illustrations and examples given above were not as clear as they appear in this report. First,
the respondent felt more comfortable talking about issues regarding her personal health than she
was about her family. For instance, when answering questions about how active she is, the
explanations were vivid and to the slightest detail. On the other hand, responses touching on
family were somewhat reserved and more concealing. However, the respondent was not pushed
too hard on the issues she felt uncomfortable with to avoid making her nervous.
One underlying factor about the respondent was that she is an organized person who
doesn’t mince her words, and I guess her attitudes towards everything as well. At some point, it
felt that maybe some factors could have been influencing certain opinions about the healthcare
department and the practitioners. Therefore, the respondent was asked a direct question if her
living situation or the resources available to her have anything to do with her decision to seek
medical help from a doctor or health facility. In response, she did admit that proximity to a
healthcare facility makes it easier for her to go seek medical help in case she gets sick. For
others, they might not be as lucky as to reside near health centers and, therefore, they might
decide not to go just to avoid extra expenses. This clearly shows that there is a health disparity in
the sense that some disadvantaged people, might be socially or financially, might not be able to
compete with the rich folk who can afford medical help from health centers any time they get
sick. Health disparity calls for health equity. It is vital to ensure that health is not a luxury that
only those endowed can achieve. Healthcare should be available to every single person in need
(Braveman, 2014).
Part Two
The primary reason for approaching this respondent among the many other options available was
that I once was in her company as she bought drugs over the counter without prescriptions. At
that time were not close enough to ask her more about the reasons for preferring over the counter
drugs to diagnosis by a physician. Therefore, this interview provided a perfect opportunity for
discovering the respondent’s exact issues. Interviewing the respondent was fulfilling because
although I had no immediate remedies for the situations she had faced in the past and would
probably still face in the future, at least I knew what the experience was like. This knowledge is
significant as practicing health providers because sharing it can help other practitioners give
keener attention to patients while handling them.
Interviewing about healthcare was both thrilling and informative. Healthcare is one of the
most significant sectors in the world since it governs every other aspect of life. For many years,
studies have been going on to establish how to improve the health sector, with many suggesting
the massive improvements being made to these regards. However, the most exciting yet painful
thing about this interview was that it allowed getting first-hand information regarding various
issues. The opportunity was the exciting part, while the damning realization of the unfortunate
circumstances that people are still facing in the contemporary world regarding healthcare was the
sickening part. However, the information was still essential since the identification and
acceptance of a problem is always the first step to solving a problem.
This interview seemed like a flashback to the situations I once faced before getting lucky
to have medical cover—the conditions which eventually influenced my desire to become a health
practitioner to help others who could not afford healthcare in society. Spending fortunes while
treating healthcare was the norm and used to bother me considering the harsh economic times
and strenuous living standards. However, the real bother was when I witnessed some patients
pass for two reasons; (1) overstaying on the waiting queue, and (2) failing to have sufficient
funds to undergo the required tests. This was when it dawned to me that there existed people who
needed urgent help, yet could not get it because of very many social determinants. I thought of
the many more who could not even afford the transport to get them to the health centers.
Therefore, listening to the interviewee narrate her experiences, which were very much similar to
what I once experienced, reignited my memories.
This discussion shows how I directly can relate the issues presented by the interviewee
since they are episodes that I have experienced before. The only motivation is that thanks to
technology and other related advancements in the health departments, care is becoming more
affordable, and research is also easy to do. The only hope is that the practitioners and the entire
health care sector will overcome the various challenges it currently faces so that it seizes being
part of the causes for people feeling reluctant to seek medical services. ;
Braveman P. (2014). What are health disparities and health equity? We need to be clear. Public
health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 129 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), 5–8.
Postpartum Care
Ruth Bastien
Michigan State University
Postpartum Care
The world population as of April 2019 was estimated to be 7.7 billion, with this being
double the population forty-three years ago. This number has probably increased over the months
and currently likely to be approaching eight billion. The data above shows the high number of
births that have been occurring across the globe. Most health departments and medical
practitioners around the world have tried to use the various general and technological
advancements in the contemporary world as safe as possible, despite the challenges that come
with the high population and unequal distribution of resources. In this regard, the efforts that
these groups of people and their respective governments have implemented, particularly of
prenatal care, are commendable. These efforts have resulted in the proper care of pregnancies
and safe births. However, a massive problem occurs after birth since all efforts are only focused
on prenatal care at the expense of postpartum care.
Postpartum care refers to the process of monitoring, attending to, and providing women
and newborns with essential physical, mental, and medical assistance after giving birth. Most
medical practitioners and designed postpartum programs state that this period begins
immediately after birth and extends to up to six weeks after birth. Unfortunately, most mothers
and their newborns never get this attention (Declercq et al., 2002). Although the problem is a
global concern, Sub-Saharan Africa ranks as one of the most affected areas because of many
factors, including limited resources, knowledge, and medical practitioners to handle the
postpartum care related concerns (De Vries, Benoit, van Teijlingen & Wrede 2015). As a result,
both mothers and their newborns have continued to face numerous adverse situations warranting
urgent attention, intervention, and mitigation. This report, therefore, discusses postpartum care in
its entirety in Sub-Saharan Africa and some remedies that can be implemented to improve
postpartum care in the region.
Evidence of Lack of Postpartum Care
Quantitative Data
Research by the World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that more than three million
mothers across the globe suffer from postpartum disorders every year. Postpartum disorders are
the illnesses that arise from the lack of provision of postpartum care to women who have given
birth (Rope, 2019). The research from WHO also revealed that the slow progress and HIV
complications in Africa make the region to have the least amount of maternal health information
in the whole world. Studies from the CDC and BMC also support WHO’s report claiming that
the lack of maternal health information also arises from the lack of accurate ways of measuring
the quality of maternal and post maternal care in Africa. According to the studies, only 25%,
33%, 41%, and 40% of women received postpartum care in their first week of delivery in
Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Mozambique, respectively. This data also shows that the
average number of poor African women who die or lose children because of the lack of maternal
and postpartum care is currently one in every thirty-nine women. Finally, studies also reveal that
50% of the women who show signs of depression after they have delivered had experienced an
episode of that depression before delivery.
Qualitative Data
During their studies, the World Health Organization interviewed several women in the
affected regions, including most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and most of those interviewed
women confessed to having never received or heard about postpartum care. Other scholars have
also listed sub-Sahara Africa and Liberia regions as the homes to half of the world’s maternal
deaths. CDC also reported that pregnancy is often regarded as a severe medical condition in SubSaharan Africa. Finally, according to The Hill, “Lack of care during and shortly before and after
birth is a major contributor in maternal mortality and is reasons on million infants die every
year in their first day of life –and another million in the next six days.” (The Hill)
Effects of Lack of Postpartum Care
Lack of postpartum care has had adverse impacts on both the mother and the newborns.
For the mothers, the implications are often both psychological and physical. Some of the
psychological problems that women often face because of lack of postpartum care include
increased moments of feeling sadness and anxiety, crying for no apparent reason, changes in
sleep and eating patterns, sudden and rapid mood changes, and poor concentration as they
engage in their day-to-day activities (Vandana et al. 2019). On the other hand, the physical
effects that women face include severe bleeding, Pre-eclampsia, and infections. Severe bleeding
always occurs immediately after birth and is usually worse in complicated deliveries. Although
medical practitioners have already researched and proven that injecting oxytocics immediately
after birth can help to reduce the risks of bleeding, very few women in Sub-Saharan Africa
usually have access to such medications, thus making them susceptible to dire implications that
always lead to death in most cases.
something can’t “always” lead to death in “most” cases.
Pre-eclampsia is the state in which pregnant women experience high blood pressure,
which is often accompanied by fluid retention. The implications of this condition are rapid
weight gain, swelling of the mother’s hands and feet, and increased episodes of shortness of
doctors? physicians?
breath. Medics have already discovered that this condition can be mitigated by administering
medications like magnesium sulfate to lower the expectant women’s risks of developing
eclampsia. However, this knowledge is still evidently not widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa,
This section
could probably
be much
shortened. I’m
not sure we need
to know all of the
symptoms of
depression or
We just need
information to
understand the
intervention and
gauge its
thus causing most women to suffer eclampsia. Eclampsia is a severe and life-threatening medical
condition that expectant mothers face during pregnancy or shortly after giving birth and is often
characterized by the development of seizures. Finally, the lack of postpartum care often causes
women to contract infections which are easily preventable through proper hygiene and prompt
identification and treatment.
Children also face dire implications because of the lack of postpartum care to their
mothers. Psychologists agree that children are always emotionally connected to their mothers
and, therefore, their mother’s mental instability also affects their cognitive development. Such
children experience problems in social engagements, increased stress levels, and fear reactivity.
All of these illustrations show the dire need for intervening for the helpless women and children
from Sub-Saharan Africa who are the most affected by the lack of postpartum care in the entire
Intervention Measures
The first and one of the most significant measures that need immediate consideration and
implementation is the redesigning of new relevant national health goals and programs for
postpartum care to prevent maternal mortality and help in preventing and handling postpartum
Secondly, this discussion has revealed that lack of knowledge and facilities are the most
critical factors that hinder postpartum care provision in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the next
measure is to increased funding to implement proper intrapartum and postpartum training for
existing healthcare workers as well as bring in further healthcare aid to these understaffed, rural,
and impoverished areas of Sub Saharan Africa.
This is
essentially just a
copying of your
bullet points in
your slide,
without really
seeing your voice
and context. A
hint is the length
of these
paragraphs. Very
short paragraphs
bad, but they are
often a sign that
ideas aren’t
developed from
the outline.
The next proposal is to reconsider the scope and duration for postpartum care to include
mental health services to aid mothers in dealing with postpartum depression in Sub-Saharan
Finally, designing educative materials about postpartum care regarding its significance
and dangers of not receiving it then presenting to every expectant woman during prenatal visits
will also help to improve postnatal care in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Partner Organizations
World Health Organization (WHO)
The WHO has done commendable work thus far regarding the provision of health care
services to all populations across the globe. Their efforts have included researching on the
various global issues and their interventions, and funding projects aiming to solve the problems
discovered, among others. Partnering with this organization will, therefore, be very resourceful
considering the vast experience, personnel, and resources that they possess.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Like the WHO, CDC is also a resourceful organization with competent personnel and
resources and has also been doing a commendable job in researching and preventing the spread
and emergence of diseases. Partnering with this organization will help focus more attention on
the postpartum issues that have always been sidelined for ages, thus enhancing the spread of the
need for improving postpartum care, more so in the Sub-Saharan Region.
What if anything are they doing on
your issue? What aren’t they doing?
Saving Mothers Giving Life Initiative
This organization has been keen on helping mothers to live healthy lives through
education and the provision of some of the essential services that mothers need from time-totime. Partnering with them will, therefore, be beneficial since they have experience in handling
mothers and tackling the various challenges that the process comes with. Convincing the
organization to consider the recommendations of this report will make this project part of their
objectives, thus increasing the chances of achieving the project goals.
Social Issues/Ethical Considerations
However noble this project may seem, it will face a series of social issues and ethical
considerations that need though planning to make the project actionable. The first challenge that
this project will face is understaffing that currently characterizes all health departments across
the globe. The ratio of health practitioners to citizens needing care is meager, thus hindering the
provision of care to a large population, and Sub-Saharan Africa is usually the most hit by the
This is general,
give me some data
to make clear.
deficiency of health practitioners. Poverty is another major challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa as it
has led to a lack of enough quality health facilities and public knowledge about various
healthcare services, in…


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