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Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment

Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentCritical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNUR 39000 Nursing ResearchModule 2 Assignment: Critical Thinking/Research Critique, Part 2.Before getting started, please READ ALL of the information provided to you for this assignment (See information below and additional directions within Module 2 also). It is expected that students will use resources provided within our course, and additional resources as necessary, to complete answers for each of the Critical Thinking/Research Critique assignments. For this Part 2 section, use your course textbooks to help you clarify the research concepts that are identified in this worksheet.Identification information: Indicate your groups identification information in the grey areas below. You MUST answer this information before proceeding for this assignment.Name of Group Member (indicate in parenthesis after the name- what specific question(s) each member was responsible to initially address):      your Citation      Did all group members participate in the assignment as outlined by the group and adhering to your Team Charter Agreement? Yes_______No______Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentIf your group responded “no” or individually and you have concerns about a member’s work quality and/or timeliness/ and/or contributions to the group and would like your faculty to intervene; please send an e-mail correspondence to your faculty as soon as possible. In your e-mail correspondence, please indicate if you are giving faculty permission to contact the identified student with your group/individual concerns.ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREGeneral assignment instructions:· Each member of the group will need access to your APPROVED SELECTED ARTICLE , course textbooks, and your APA manual as minimum resources to complete this assignment. Use only your APPROVED research article as the basis for this assignment. NOTE: Use of an unapproved article will result in a zero (0) earned points being assigned as the grade for this assignment for each group member.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Keep in mind you will earn a group grade for this assignment.General instructions (continued): Review ALL instructions before starting on this assignment and contact faculty if clarity is needed. TIP: Do not respond to questions if you do not understand the concept· Record responses to each question in the “grey” space provided for each question. The grey box will expand as you type.· Responses should be your own words and written in complete sentences. “Yes” or “no” answers will not be accepted and will result in point(s) deduction. In most circumstances, your responses should include an explanation/rationale. N/A responses require justification of why that criteria/question does not pertain to your article.· Minimize your use of direct quotes except where specifically requested. However, any use of direct quotes must be cited according to APA guidelines.· When directions in this worksheet request tables, the answer must use an actual table, with columns and rows as needed. It is NOT appropriate only to use only spacing instead of an actual table. If you are unfamiliar with how to make a table in a Word document, please to the “Resources” tab in Blackboard and scroll to: “How to Make a Table in a Word Document”. Failure to include a table when asked will result in point deduction for that specific question. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Review the “Hints” placed throughout the worksheet prior to responding to the question.· Read through your responses when completed for accuracy of responses AND review for correct APA format, spelling, and grammar.Critical Thinking/Research Critique, Part 2: WORKSHEET. Provide your answers in the grey areas for each of the following items/question.APA Citation of approved article:3. Title3a:· State the phenomenon of interest (focus) for your selected study.· Describe how the phenomenon of interest (Focus) is or is not apparent in the title. (HINT: Would you know the focus of this study by just reading the title?)Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment3b: Can you specifically identify that this is a research study from the title? Explain your answer.(Hint: If you just read the title and nothing else, would you be able to identify that this is a research report or that the article is giving you information on a study?) 4. Abstract4a Using page 26 of your APA manual as a guide to address this section, go to “An abstract of a report of an empirical study should describe” found on this page. Here you will find the essential elements of an abstract. Make a table of one column. In this column identify each of the essential elements of an abstract found in your selected articles abstract. If your article does not have an abstract, then you should just state “Not Applicable-no abstract provided”.(Hint: Remember data from the abstract can only be used for question 4 and should not be used to answer other sections in this worksheet. Not all journals use the specific word “abstract” to identify this information. For example, Executive Summary has been used in select abstracts.) Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment4b: Copy the table you provided in 4a and add one column. In this second column, provide the content from the abstract that relates to each essential content you identified in column one. If your article does not have an abstract, then you should just state “Not Applicable-no abstract provided”.(Hint: Refer to your APA 6th edition text pages 26 in addition to you text for further information regarding abstracts.). 5. The Research Problem5a: State the research problem in your own words, paraphrasing what the researchers presented regarding the problem. On what page of the article is the research problem found?(Hint 1): you may not find the term exact working “research problem”. Frequently found in the introduction but not always.(Hint 2): Answer what is the problem that the researchers are trying to solve? This is not the same as the research question. Additionally, the research problem is the “gap” in knowledge or what we do not know yet and are in need of an answer.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment5b: Directly quote the study aim or purpose or objective(s) or question(s) as provided by the researcher(s).· State what page you found them?· If the researcher’s included both the research question and objectives of the study, be sure to include both.(Hint: The answer to this question is usually found in the paragraph before the “Methods” section but not always). 5c: Discuss how the research(s) author identified how/why they selected the problem, and its impact on others, nursing, etc…(Hint: This is usually found in the introduction/background. This usually tells the reader why the researcher(s) thought the study was needed).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment5d: Identify the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV).· What information is provided regarding the IV and DV?· If the author(s) do not explicitly identify the IV and DV, what are the research variables from your understanding?· Explain how you came to this decision.Make a table in the first column indicate if it is the IV or DV; in the second column, identify the specific IV (s) or DV(s) in your study; and in the third column, explain how you came to this decision.(Hint: be sure you understand the difference between the IV and DV. Look on pages 29 of your text for further explanation of these terms). Additionally, there are many websites that if you go to Google and type in “distinguish independent and dependent variable, several sites will be available. Here is one: https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/help/user_guide/graph/variables.asp Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment5e: From the article, what are the:· operational definitions as the author provides, including the page number· conceptual definitions that the researcher(s) provides in the article, include the page number?· if not included, what operational & conceptual definitions would you suggest to be included in this study report?· what kind of understanding do they provide to you as the reader? Look on pages 69-70 of your text for an explanation of terms)?· Make a table and in the first column identify either operational or conceptual definition. In the second column, indicate the variable/phenomenon of interest being defined. In the third column identify the operational definition and conceptual definition provided by the researchers. Include the page number(s) where you located the definitions. In the 4th column, discuss what kind of understanding they provide you as the reader· If an operational and/or conceptual definition(s)s were not provided -in the third column place “no operational definition for this variable/phenomenon of interest was provided” or “no conceptual definition for this variable/phenomenon of interest was provided”.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· In the last row, if either an operational and/or conceptual definition(s) were not provided. Identify the variable(s) you would have identified and provide a recommended operational and conceptual definition depending on what is provided in your approved article. Make sure you are clear that this is your groups recommended definition(s)(Hint: the conceptual definition is abstract in nature while your faculty likes to say that the operational definition is “you know it when you see it.” For example, a conceptual definition of ambulation might be “a feeling of satisfaction that one gets when they are able to get where they want to go”-can you see a “feeling of satisfaction?” and an operational definition of ambulation might be defined by the researcher as “walking 20 feet without using an assistive device or the help of others”. I can “see” or measure if someone walks 20 feet without using anything or anyone to assist them in doing so”. You can also Google “distinguish between conceptual and operational definitions and view other explanations.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNOTE: continued below:Frequently, students identify the name of a survey/questionnaire/measurement/scale/exam or tool as an operational definition. It in itself is NOT considered an operational definition and should not be included as the answer for this question. For example, an RN may be operationally defined as someone who has completed a course of study in nursing from an accredited program, successfully passed the NCLEX exam and holds a current license as an RN. The NCLEX gives us data as to who was successful but the NCLEX itself is not the operational definition).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment6. Review of Literature-previous students seemed to be challenged by this section, especially questions 6b and 6c. Be sure you review your text Chapter 3. You may want to Google primary and secondary sources prior to starting this section. Remember ROL is what is known and not known about a phenomenon of interest.6a:· How is the review of the literature relevant to the study?· Describe the relationship of the problem/question/hypothesis to previous research identified in your article. Is the relationship clear to the reader?· Identify the specific page number(s) of the review of the literature-identify the first 3 words of the last paragraph of the review of the literature section. Identify the page number where the review of literature ends.(Hint: Students frequently include the discussion as the review of the literature; while the discussion section may include other studies etc. except in selected designs (grounded theory being one). This is not really the review of the literature. Keep in mind the purpose of the review of the literature: To inform the reader of what is known and not known about a phenomenon of interest).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment6b: Are primary sources used in the review of the literature? Refer to page 52 in your text and the library has provided information on the important concept of PRIMARY SOURCES in your Library Course materials. In addition, I have included one other site for your review. NOTE: the idea PRIMARY SOURCES is different than the concept of PRIMARY RESEARCH. For additional information, see links as below here:http://guides.pnw.edu/Nurs390/nur390_primary_secondaryhttp://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/tutorials/nursingtutorial/primary.html(NOTE: the tutorial associated with the above link is recommended but is optional).· Discuss how you determined the sources in the review of the literature as primary sources.· Provide ONE (1) example of a PRIMARY SOURCE that is cited by the author (s) of your selected article WITHIN THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE SECTION OF THE ARTICE. NOTE: USE correct APA format when providing the full reference citation for the primary source from the literature section; ALSO INCLUDE A PAGE NUMBER of your selected article where the author (s) cited the primary source that you have provided, as above. Remember: use a primary source from the literature review section, rather than any source from other sections of your selected article.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 6c: Are secondary sources used in the review of the literature? Identify all secondary sources. Use proper APA format. (Note: There should be very few secondary sources. If you are not clear about secondary sources, please see links above in Section 6b to make sure you understand what a secondary source is).· Discuss how you identified if any secondary sources were cited in the review of literature section of your selected article, and if so, which references cited were secondary sources.· If your selected article includes any secondary source in the literature review, give ONE (1) example of a secondary source in an APA formatted citation. Provide a page number where the researcher(s) refers to this article in the review of the literature section only not throughout the article.  6d: What heading was used to identify the review of the literature?· How recent are the sources in the review of literature section only?· What is the range of years in the review of literature section only?· What page number(s) did you find the review of the literature section? Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment6e: After reading the review of the literature,· Identify what is known about the phenomenon of interest?· Identify what is unknown about the phenomenon of interest? 6f:· How does the researcher conclude the review of literature?· State the page number where the author(s) conclude the review of the literature. 7. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework (Chapter 4)7a: Is there a theoretical/conceptual framework identified and if so, what is the theoretical/conceptual framework?· Is it a nursing framework/theory-meaning does the framework/theory originate from the nursing discipline?· If not a nursing framework/theory, what discipline is the origin of the framework/theory?· State the page number where the specific framework/theory is identified.(Hint: you may need to Google the framework if not a nursing theory or conceptual model to identify what discipline the theory/conceptual model originated).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment7b: Is the framework/theory, if identified, appropriate or a good fit for the research problem?· Discuss how/why this framework/theory is appropriate to the research problem?· If no framework/theory is identified, suggest a framework you would propose? Reflect on the nursing theories that were presented to you in your Nursing Theories class. Perhaps, you can select a theory that best reflects the relationship of the variables presented in your selected study. Or, you can identify a “borrowed” theory/framework? (Does the theory/framework originate in a discipline other than nursing and you are suggesting that it be borrowed for this study because it is a better fit?) Identify the discipline that your suggested framework/theory originates. Is it nursing or does it come from another discipline. (For example, if it is a study on the environmental culture of a hospital-would a theory originating in business/management better serve in explaining the relationship of the variables been studied?)· Why did you select that particular framework/theory based on the variables present in your study?· Provide a reference for your proposed framework/theory. 8. Hypothesis8a: Provide the direct quote of how the author states the hypothesis in the article. Provide the page number of the quote. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment8b: What kind of hypothesis is presented? (Null? Direct? Associative? Etc.) Answer N/A if the author did not provide a hypothesis. 8c: If a hypothesis is presented, did the hypothesis contain the population, intervention, comparison and outcome? 8d: Write a hypothesis that you might suggest if none was provided. Why did you formulate that hypothesis? What type of hypothesis did you select? 9: Research Design/Method-It is important that you understand design. You may want to review the slide available in Blackboard under resources related to Quantitative Designs. The figure does not include all, but many are included.9a:· What is the research design/method (blueprint) of the study? Write the design exactly as the researcher’s present it in the article.· Where did you find this information?· Include page number and quote from the article.· Based on the design, what is the level of evidence/evidence hierarchy? (Hint: see page 13 of your Lo-Biondo text.(Hint: This is a question that frequently perplexes students; is important for you to understand design in order to address the questions in this section. I might suggest that you start with clicking on Resources found on the course menu list and review the Quantitative Research Designs Figure. Try to understand the figure. It is not all inclusive but covers many of the more common designs).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment9b: Explain how the research design is appropriate to how the researchers did a) data collection and b) data analysis,as reported in the article. Complete the table provided.(Hint: you MUST understand the purpose of a research design in order to appropriately answer this question and the characteristics attributed to the specific design. For example, if the researchers used a descriptive-exploratory design-I would not expect where one group gets an intervention and the other does not in terms of data collection or higher level inferential statistics).Design as you identified in the question aboveData Collection and how it fits with this type of designData Analysis and how it fits with this design  9c: Does the research design compensate for threats to internal and external validity of the study? If yes, which ones (box on page 172-use as a guide). Identify each of the nine (9) threat separately as provided in your text and discuss in table format. Use the table headings provided below.NOTE: Refer to the textbook – Pages 155-161List all threats identified in your textbookApplicable to your study? Answer Yes or NoIf yes, how did the researcher(s) compensate for the threat and what page did you find this information? If no, why is that specific threat not applicable to your studyInternal Threats:1.2.3.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment4.5.6.External Threats:  9d:· How many groups were involved in the study?___________(Place answer here)· How were participants assigned to groups?  9e: If comparison groups were used, where they equivalent?(Hint: Look at the group demographics as well as the numbers in the groups). 9f: Identify any uncontrolled, extraneous variables reported by the researchers. Include page number(s) were you found this information.· Describe how uncontrolled, extraneous variables were controlled for in the research? 10. Sample Selection10a: Did the authors use a population or sample in the research study? (State the page number you found this information). (HINT: Population and sample are not used interchangeably in research language)Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment10b:· Are the characteristics (demographics) of the sample/participant group described? Yes______ No______· State the page number where this information is found.· Include a brief description of the sample. Do not just indicate that it can be found in a table.(Hint: Be sure you understand the concept of demographic data. This is NOT the same as inclusion criteria but may have corresponding characteristics. This information is often presented in table format in the article). 10c:· What was the inclusion criteria related to the population/sample, if specified? State the page number where this information is found.· What was the exclusion criteria related to the population/sample, if specified? State the page number where this information is found.(Hint: This information is typically provided under the Methods section-“Sample”). 10d:· What sampling design (Chapter 12-pages 216-227) did the authors implement for this study?_______________________________________· Which category does the identified sampling design fit? Probability or nonprobability sampling?· How was the sample obtained (recruited) for the study?· Where did you locate this information in the article? State the section heading and page number.(Hint: if the authors have not identified the sampling design, use your textbook to make a determination regarding the sampling design).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment10e: Is the sampling design one that is likely to produce a representative sample?· Is representativeness important to the methodology?· How will this sampling design affect generalizability (Page 244-look at the figure provided)?(Hint: For some types of research, representativeness is not important. It depends on the design of the study. You must know the correct sampling design to complete this question correctly). 10f: Is the sample size sufficient, given the design of the study and/or the number of variables in the study?· Does the study discuss power analysis? State the page number if power analysis was discussed. (HINT: Power analysis and inferential statistics used to analyze the findings are NOT the same research concepts.)· Is the power analysis even appropriate for the design of the study? Explain your answer.· If you answered yes that a power analysis would have been appropriate and no power analysis is provided-discuss your rationale for your response. 10g: Does the report indicate the response rate (i.e. the percentage of contacted persons agreeing to participate in the study).Yes_____ No______· State the page number found._________· With the information provided is it possible for you to calculate the response rate? If yes, show the math and provide the response rate.(Hint: you may have to look in several places in your article to find this data)Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentReferences: For this Part 2 Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment, you will provide all reference citations for this section, in correct APA format, as a Reference List (see below). (Hint: your textbook should be listed here as well as your approved research article, as you should have cited these within your worksheet as a source of information. Reference Lists are not the same as “bibliographies.” In your Reference List, include full citations ONLY for those references/sources that were actually CITIED within the document (e.g. “in text” citations, or “full referenced” citations for specific items – even though you may have read information from other sources.NOTE: To submit your Part 2 assignment worksheet, use the drop box for the Module 2 Critical Thinking Assignment Part 2 Assignment (See grading rubric further below). RE: SAFE ASSIGN for DRAFT and FINAL (Module 5) SAFE Assign submissions. In the LAST week of our course, your Module 5 FINAL Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment will be a Safe Assign submission. For THIS Part 2 Assignment worksheet, your submission will NOT be a Safe Assign assignment (Please see additional directions within Module 2 about obtaining DRAFT “similarity index/originality report” scores for your DRAFT submissions and see Module 5 for directions about submission of your FINAL Critical Thinking…document to Safe Assign. NOTE: in this course, ALL SAFE ASSIGN SUBMISSIONS must be submitted WTIHOUT a REFERENCE LIST.).For this Part 2 assignment, include all of your references for this Part 2 section in a Reference List, as below, within this Part 2 worksheet (See APA manual for reference guidelines and format). Remember that references are those articles/text/websites etc that you indeed “referred to” in this worksheet. Do not include any sources you did NOT refer to in this worksheet.ReferencesGrading Rubric – Critical Thinking/Research Critique Paper – First Draft Sections 1-10: Module 2Please note: Use this grading rubric to guide your responses to the Critical Thinking/Research Critique assignment in Module 2.Note: Question 1 is evaluated under Task 11.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentTasks Target: Acceptable: Unacceptable: Not Addressed:3. Title· Focus of study apparent in title· Can identify phenomenon of interest by reading title. Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substance Attempted to respond but responses are incomplete and justification is frequently inaccurate/incorrect or omitted Not addressed  2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 Points4. Abstract· Essential content of abstract· Critical reading of abstract Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Mostly accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substance Attempted to respond but responses are incomplete and justification is inaccurate/incorrect or omitted Not addressed  2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 Points5. The Research Problem· Research problem identified· Clarity of problem or phenomenon· Clarity of significance of problem· IV and DV identified· Operational and conceptual definitions with page citation Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number right Mostly accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substancePage numbers are accurate Inaccurate responses or infers a problem not explicitly stated; or attempted to respond but responses are inaccurate/incorrect and justification is inaccurate or lacks substance.Page number mission or wrong Not addressed  5 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points6. Review of Literature· Relevance of ROL and research problem· Primary sources in ROL· Differentiates secondary sources· Currency of ROL· ROL identifies what is known and unknown· ROL summarized and linked to problem. Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number right Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance in justification or inappropriately justifiesClearly understands primary and secondary sources.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect or omittedDoes not demonstrate understanding of primary and secondary sources Not addressed  5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points7. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework· Conceptual framework identified and described· If applicable, fit of conceptual framework with research problem· Discipline associated with theory· Suggested framework/theory Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number provided Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justifiedPage number is provided Attempt to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrectDoes not provide page number Not addressed but study does provide a theoretical frameworkCritical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 Points8. Research Variables and Hypothesis· Author explicitly stated hypothesis· Hypothesis· Kind of hypothesis identified· Essential elements of hypothesis included· Suggested hypothesis Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyClearly posts a potential hypothesis and identifies type accurately. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Accurate responses, but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justifiedPotential hypothesis is satisfactory but does not accurately identify type Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrectDoes not accurately identify a potential hypothesis or identification of type is inaccurate Not addressed  4 Point 2-3 Points 1 Points 0 Points9. Research Design/Method· Research design identified· Level of Hierarchy identified· Relationship between study design and data collection methods· Identifies threats to internal validity and external validity. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Number of groups participating in study identified· Equivalence of comparison groups, if applicable· Uncontrolled, extraneous variables identified Accurate responses to each criterionJustified appropriately, page number and quote accurate Mainly accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justified  Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect, including page number and quoteDoes not identify all threats to internal or external validity-responses lack substance. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Not addressed-does not provide table  5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points10. Sample Selection· Study population or sample identified· Characteristics of sample/participant group· Inclusion/exclusion criteria· Sampling design and sample recruitment· Representative sample· Sample size and power analysis· Response rate Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justified Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect Not addressedCritical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 PointsCitation (Question 1)11. Use of APA according to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Ed.)Additionally, use of good grammar, spelling and proofreading work is required No APA errors whatsoever, congratulations! No grammar or spelling errors.Question 1 displays perfect APA application; includes attention to indentation; use of upper and lower case in the title; how authors names are listed etc. Only minor error in APA rules for format, citation in text and reference list; revisit some of the common errors in APA. Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentORMinor grammar or spelling errors Many errors in APA rules for format, citation in text and reference list; revisit some of the common errors in APAANDMany grammar or spelling errors Little attention to APA rules for citation in text and reference list, errors in basic format; need to crack the APA manualMore than four (4) grammar spelling errors.  2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 PointsTotal Point Score________out of 35Summary of strengths and areas to be improved:Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNUR 39000 Nursing ResearchModule 2 Assignment: Critical Thinking/Research Critique, Part 2.Before getting started, please READ ALL of the information provided to you for this assignment (See information below and additional directions within Module 2 also). It is expected that students will use resources provided within our course, and additional resources as necessary, to complete answers for each of the Critical Thinking/Research Critique assignments. For this Part 2 section, use your course textbooks to help you clarify the research concepts that are identified in this worksheet.Identification information: Indicate your groups identification information in the grey areas below. You MUST answer this information before proceeding for this assignment.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentName of Group Member (indicate in parenthesis after the name- what specific question(s) each member was responsible to initially address):     your Citation     Did all group members participate in the assignment as outlined by the group and adhering to your Team Charter Agreement? Yes_______No______If your group responded “no” or individually and you have concerns about a member’s work quality and/or timeliness/ and/or contributions to the group and would like your faculty to intervene; please send an e-mail correspondence to your faculty as soon as possible. In your e-mail correspondence, please indicate if you are giving faculty permission to contact the identified student with your group/individual concerns.General assignment instructions:· Each member of the group will need access to your APPROVED SELECTED ARTICLE , course textbooks, and your APA manual as minimum resources to complete this assignment. Use only your APPROVED research article as the basis for this assignment. NOTE: Use of an unapproved article will result in a zero (0) earned points being assigned as the grade for this assignment for each group member.· Keep in mind you will earn a group grade for this assignment.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentGeneral instructions (continued): Review ALL instructions before starting on this assignment and contact faculty if clarity is needed. TIP: Do not respond to questions if you do not understand the concept· Record responses to each question in the “grey” space provided for each question. The grey box will expand as you type.· Responses should be your own words and written in complete sentences. “Yes” or “no” answers will not be accepted and will result in point(s) deduction. In most circumstances, your responses should include an explanation/rationale. N/A responses require justification of why that criteria/question does not pertain to your article.· Minimize your use of direct quotes except where specifically requested. However, any use of direct quotes must be cited according to APA guidelines.· When directions in this worksheet request tables, the answer must use an actual table, with columns and rows as needed. It is NOT appropriate only to use only spacing instead of an actual table. If you are unfamiliar with how to make a table in a Word document, please to the “Resources” tab in Blackboard and scroll to: “How to Make a Table in a Word Document”. Failure to include a table when asked will result in point deduction for that specific question. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Review the “Hints” placed throughout the worksheet prior to responding to the question.· Read through your responses when completed for accuracy of responses AND review for correct APA format, spelling, andCritical Thinking/Research Critique, Part 2: WORKSHEET. Provide your answers in the grey areas for each of the following items/question.APA Citation of approved article: 3. Title3a:· State the phenomenon of interest (focus) for your selected study.· Describe how the phenomenon of interest (Focus) is or is not apparent in the title. (HINT: Would you know the focus of this study by just reading the title?)The phenomenon of interest for my chosen study is on protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation (OPCC) for advanced heart failure (HF).The phenomenon of interest is apparent in both the title and subtitle, as the study seeks to find if ENABLE CHF-PC, a study protocol for randomized, influences the outpatient palliative care consultation (OPCC) for advanced heart failure (HF).Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentENABLE CHF-PC in full stands for Educate, Nurture, Advise, and Before Life Ends Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers.3b: Can you specifically identify that this is a research study from the title? Explain your answer.(Hint: If you just read the title and nothing else, would you be able to identify that this is a research report or that the article is giving you information on a study?)It is possible to identify that this is a research report based on the title because it has clearly outlined the nature of research conducted. The sub-title clearly outline what the outcomes of the research are about. It also composed of twelve substantive words, which is within the required range of 10-15 words.  4. Abstract4a Using page 26 of your APA manual as a guide to address this section, go to “An abstract of a report of an empirical study should describe” found on this page. Here you will find the essential elements of an abstract. Make a table of one column. In this column identify each of the essential elements of an abstract found in your selected articles abstract. If your article does not have an abstract, then you should just state “Not Applicable-no abstract provided”.(Hint: Remember data from the abstract can only be used for question 4 and should not be used to answer other sections in this worksheet. Not all journals use the specific word “abstract” to identify this information. For example, Executive Summary has been used in select abstracts.)Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentEssential elements of my chosen article’s abstractAn outline of the problem under investigationAn outline of the study’s objectiveStudy methodologyStudy FeaturesStudy designStudy participantsResultsBasic findingsConclusionKeywords4b: Copy the table you provided in 4a and add one column. In this second column, provide the content from the abstract that relates to each essential content you identified in column one. If your article does not have an abstract, then you should just state “Not Applicable-no abstract provided”.(Hint: Refer to your APA 6th edition text pages 26 in addition to you text for further information regarding abstracts.).Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentEssential elements of my chosen article’s abstractContent of Essential elements of my chosen article’s abstractAn outline of the problem under investigationProtocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation (OPCC) for advanced heart failure (HF)An outline of the study’s objectiveThe main objective has been clearly outlined as; To describe evaluation practices and treatment recommendations made during protocol-driven OPCCs for advanced HF.Study methodologyAn outline of the methodology used; where content analysis of completed OPCCs was performed as part of ENABLE CHF-PC. Variables are taken into consideration and the tests done have been outlinedStudy FeaturesThe study evaluated information from distinct characteristics that ranged from socio-demographic, outcome measures, and site content differences. Symptom Evaluation of the symptoms entailed the assessment of mood disorders, pain, dyspnea, and fatigue.Study designSingle-pilot study.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentStudy participantsParticipants were 61 patients diagnosed with advanced HF and 48 family caregivers in two-siteResultsOf 61 ENABLE CHF-PC participants, 39 (64%) had an OPCC (Northeast, n = 27; Southeast, n = 12).Social and medical history assessed most were close relationships (n = 35, 90%), family support (n = 33, 85%),advance directive status (n = 33, 85%), functional status (n = 30, 77%); and symptoms were mood (n = 35,90%), breathlessness (n = 28, 72%), and chest pain (n = 24, 62%).Treatment recommendations focused on careCoordination (n = 13, 33%) and specialty referrals (n = 12, 31%)Basic findingsBasic findings in this study were that OPCCs for HF focused on evaluating medical and social history, along with goals of care and code status discussionsConclusionIt was concluded that notable regional differences were found in topics evaluated and OPCC completion ratesKeywordsOutpatient supportive care, Heart failure, Content analysis 5. The Research Problem5a: State the research problem in your own words, paraphrasing what the researchers presented regarding the problem. On what page of the article is the research problem found?Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment(Hint 1): you may not find the term exact working “research problem”. Frequently found in the introduction but not always.(Hint 2): Answer what is the problem that the researchers are trying to solve? This is not the same as the research question. Additionally, the research problem is the “gap” in knowledge or what we do not know yet and are in need of an answer.There is an eminent inadequacy of information regarding protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation for advanced heart failure (HF). Despite the survival rate after diagnosis has improved from 54% to 61%, a population of about seven million is at the risk dying from HF and this is anticipated to increase with 46% within a span of fifteen years (Benjamin et al., 2017). In a bid to have effective management of advanced heart failures, cardiology and palliative care have been merged.Palliative care (PC) is a special form of healthcare which focuses on relieving the sufferings through pain management and reduction of the symptoms. Despite the overwhelming evidence from various research studies, supporting PC’s benefits, initiation of palliative care often occurs late, usually after hospitalization. Little information is known about the frequency of outpatient palliative care for HF. Besides, there is limited literature on outpatient palliative care whose primary motivation for consultations is HR.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentSome of the studies conducted were retrospective in nature, utilized a single site while the prospective studies that relied on data from providers and patients, focused on the need for outpatient palliative care consultations for HF patients. Recent reviews have shown that there are unmet palliative care needs that are specifically more prevalent among underserved populations (Benjamin et al., 2017).The researchers did not find any information regarding any exploration of any protocol or any trigger-driven for outpatient palliative care consultations for HF patients. This is what motivated them to seek for assessment and treatment recommendations in protocol-driven OPCC for advanced HF patients by utilizing clinic notes gathered from an early palliative care pilot study (Wells et al., 2018).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment5b: Directly quote the study aim or purpose or objective(s) or question(s) as provided by the researcher(s).· State what page you found them?· If the researcher’s included both the research question and objectives of the study, be sure to include both.(Hint: The answer to this question is usually found in the paragraph before the “Methods” section but not always).Study objective of the study is To describe evaluation practices and treatment recommendations made during protocol-driven OPCCs for advanced HF. (Wells et al., 2018)5c: Discuss how the research(s) author identified how/why they selected the problem, and its impact on others, nursing, etc…(Hint: This is usually found in the introduction/background. This usually tells the reader why the researcher(s) thought the study was needed).The researchers’ motivation in choosing the problem is based on facts that there is little information available about protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation (OPCC) for advanced heart failure (HF). 5d: Identify the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV).· What information is provided regarding the IV and DV?Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· If the author(s) do not explicitly identify the IV and DV, what are the research variables from your understanding?· Explain how you came to this decision.Make a table in the first column indicate if it is the IV or DV; in the second column, identify the specific IV (s) or DV(s) in your study; and in the third column, explain how you came to this decision.(Hint: be sure you understand the difference between the IV and DV. Look on pages 29 of your text for further explanation of these terms). Additionally, there are many websites that if you go to Google and type in “distinguish independent and dependent variable, several sites will be available. Here is one: https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/help/user_guide/graph/variables.aspCritical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentVariablesType of variable (dependent or independent)ExplanationSocial and medical historyIndependent VariableSocial and medical history cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.Racial originIndependent VariableRacial origin is unalterable by the other variables measured in this study. AgeIndependent VariableAge is cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.GenderIndependent VariableGender cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.ReligionIndependent VariableReligion inclinations of a patient cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.SizeIndependent VariableThe size of a patient cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.Marital StatusIndependent VariablesMarital status of a patient cannot be changed by the other variables measured in this study.Quality of lifeDependent VariableQuality of life is determined by a number of factors such as treatment, management of pain if a patient experiences pain among other factors.Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness CareDependent VariableIt is upon multiple factors, ranging from the financial status of the patient or that of family members.Family SupportDependent VariableIt depends upon multiple factors, ranging from socio-economic factors, familial factors among other factors.Treatment recommendationsDependent variableIt is dependent upon a number of factors such as the level of healthcare a patient needs.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentBreathlessnessDependent VariableIt is a dependent variable relying on a number of factors, among them is whether a patient has sought medical attention or not.Chest painDependent variableChest pain depends upon a number of factors among them is whether a patient has taken a pain reliever or not.Functional statusDependent VariableFunctional status relies on other measures such as the patient’s physical, psychological, social and role functionsAdvance directive statusIndependent variableThe status of an advance directive is not changeable by other variables measured in this study.Referral to Specialty ServicesDependent VariableIt is a dependent variable because its measure depends on other variables such as the complexity of HF in a patient among other factors. 5e: From the article, what are the:· operational definitions as the author provides, including the page number· conceptual definitions that the researcher(s) provides in the article, include the page number?· if not included, what operational & conceptual definitions would you suggest to be included in this study report?· what kind of understanding do they provide to you as the reader? Look on pages 69-70 of your text for an explanation of terms)?Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Make a table and in the first column identify either operational or conceptual definition. In the second column, indicate the variable/phenomenon of interest is defined. In the third column identify the operational definition and conceptual definition provided by the researchers. Include the page number(s) where you located the definitions. In the 4th column, discuss what kind of understanding they provide you as the reader· If an operational and/or conceptual definition(s)s were not provided -in the third column place “no operational definition for this variable/phenomenon of interest was provided” or “no conceptual definition for this variable/phenomenon of interest was provided”.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· In the last row, if either an operational and/or conceptual definition(s) were not provided. Identify the variable(s) you would have identified and provide a recommended operational and conceptual definition depending on what is provided in your approved article. Make sure you are clear that this is your groups recommended definition(s)(Hint: the conceptual definition is abstract in nature while your faculty likes to say that the operational definition is “you know it when you see it.” For example, a conceptual definition of ambulation might be “a feeling of satisfaction that one gets when they are able to get where they want to go”-can you see a “feeling of satisfaction?” and an operational definition of ambulation might be defined by the researcher as “walking 20 feet without using an assistive device or the help of others”. I can “see” or measure if someone walks 20 feet without using anything or anyone to assist them in doing so”. You can also Google “distinguish between conceptual and operational definitions and view other explanations.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNOTE: continued below:Frequently, students identify the name of a survey/questionnaire/measurement/scale/exam or tool as an operational definition. It in itself is NOT considered an operational definition and should not be included as the answer to this question. For example, an RN may be operationally defined as someone who has completed a course of study in nursing from an accredited program, successfully passed the NCLEX exam and holds a current license as an RN. The NCLEX gives us data as to who was successful but the NCLEX itself is not the operational definition).Operational or ConnectionalVariable/phenomenon of interestDefinition of the operationalOperationalDefined the eligibility to participate in this research study Found on page 535 of this study.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentPatients were eligible ifthey presented with advanced HF as defined by NYHA Class III/IV or AHA/ACC Stage C/D HFOperationalDefinition of advanced heart failure.Found on page 533 of the chosen study document.(Bekelman et al., 2009)Advanced heart failure (HF) as defined by New York Heart Association (NYHA) Stage III-IV or American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Class C-D(Bekelman et al., 2009) 6. Review of Literature-previous students seemed to be challenged by this section, especially questions 6b and 6c. Be sure you review your text Chapter 3. You may want to Google primary and secondary sources prior to starting this section. Remember ROL is what is known and not known about a phenomenon of interest.6a:Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· How is the review of the literature relevant to the study?· Describe the relationship of the problem/question/hypothesis to previous research identified in your article. Is the relationship clear to the reader?· Identify the specific page number(s) of the review of the literature-identify the first 3 words of the last paragraph of the review of the literature section. Identify the page number where the review of literature ends.(Hint: Students frequently include the discussion as the review of the literature; while the discussion section may include other studies etc. except in selected designs (the grounded theory being one). This is not really the review of the literature. Keep in mind the purpose of the review of the literature: To inform the reader of what is known and not known about a phenomenon of interest).First and foremost, the article does not have a part with the title literature review. So it is a bit confusing for the reader. They are however some parts of within the introduction part.Customarily, the review of literature is usually geared towards conveying to the reader the ideas and theoretical knowledge that have been established on a certain topic. In the case of this study, the review of literature has been designed to provide the reader with both available information and the knowledge gaps in palliative care.The relationship between the gaps of knowledge that this study aimed at filling and literature that was available prior to the conducting of this study are clear.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentThis study aimed at filling in the knowledge gaps in the description of the evaluation practices and treatment recommendations made during protocol-drivenOPCCs for advanced HF. The researchers were motivated to pursue this research based on the inadequacy of information pertaining to protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultations for HF patients.The chosen article has its literature reviewed within the introduction part which is in pages 533 and 534. The first three words of the last paragraph are. “Secondary outcomes included…”6b: Are primary sources used in the review of the literature? Refer to page 52 in your text and the library has provided information on the important concept of PRIMARY SOURCES in your Library Course materials. In addition, I have included one other site for your review. NOTE: the idea PRIMARY SOURCES is different than the concept of PRIMARY RESEARCH. For additional information, see links as below here:http://guides.pnw.edu/Nurs390/nur390_primary_secondaryhttp://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/tutorials/nursingtutorial/primary.html(NOTE: the tutorial associated with the above link is recommended but is optional).Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Discuss how you determined the sources in the review of the literature as primary sources.· Provide ONE (1) example of a PRIMARY SOURCE that is cited by the author (s) of your selected article WITHIN THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE SECTION OF THE ARTICE. NOTE: USE correct APA format when providing the full reference citation for the primary source from the literature section; ALSO INCLUDE A PAGE NUMBER of your selected article where the author (s) cited the primary source that you have provided, as above. Remember: use a primary source from the literature review section, rather than any source from other sections of your selected article.A primary source gives a distinctive description of a research study as it has been written by the main investigators.My basis for determining a primary resource was based on my scrutiny and understanding of determining a primary source as the one whose authors of the articles are the one who conducted the study described in the literature review. Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentEvangelista, L., Lombardo, D., Malik, S., Ballard-Hernandez, J., Motie, M., & Liao, S. (2012). Examining the Effects of an Outpatient Palliative Care Consultation on Symptom Burden, Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients With Symptomatic Heart Failure. Journal Of Cardiac Failure, 18(12), 894-899. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.10.019The above primary source has been cited in page 534 of the chosen article.6c: Are secondary sources used in the review of the literature? Identify all secondary sources. Use proper APA format. (Note: There should be very few secondary sources. If you are not clear about secondary sources, please see links above in Section 6b to make sure you understand what a secondary source is).· Discuss how you identified if any secondary sources were cited in the review of the literature section of your selected article, and if so, which references cited were secondary sources.· If your selected article includes any secondary source in the literature review, give ONE (1) example of a secondary source in an APA formatted citation. Provide a page number where the researcher(s) refers to this article in the review of the literature section only not throughout the article. A secondary source refers to a description or a summary of the research study written by someone other than the one carried out the investigation.In the selected study, I identified a systematic and meta-analysis journal article as referenced below, which has basically done an analysis of other sources.In the selected study, the article has been cited in pages 533,Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentKavalieratos, D., Corbelli, J., Zhang, D., Dionne-Odom, J., Ernecoff, N., & Hanmer, J. et al. (2016). Association Between Palliative Care and Patient and Caregiver Outcomes. JAMA, 316(20), 2104. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.16840 6d: What heading was used to identify the review of the literature?· How recent are the sources in the review of literature section only?· What is the range of years in the review of literature section only?· What page number(s) did you find the review of the literature section? The heading used to identify the review of the literature is the introductionMajority of the sources are not recent ones. Only twelve out the thirty sources references are within the five years range from the date the article was published.The range of years in the review of literature section only is about twenty-two years. This is because the oldest source was published in the year 1994 while the most recent one was published in the year 2018. 6e: After reading the review of the literature,Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Identify what is known about the phenomenon of interest?· Identify what is unknown about the phenomenon of interest?Despite the survival rate after diagnosis has improved from 54% to 61%, a population of about seven million is at the risk dying from HF and this is anticipated to increase with 46% within a span of fifteen years (Benjamin et al., 2017). In a bid to have effective management of advanced heart failures, cardiology and palliative care have been merged.There is limited information regarding protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation for advanced heart failure (HF). There are no studies to date that have explored protocol- or trigger driven outpatient palliative care consultations for HF patients. This is what motivated the researchers to seek to describe the assessments and treatment recommendations made in protocol-driven OPCCs for advanced HF patients using PC clinic notes from an early PC pilot study (Wells et al., 2018).6f:· How does the researcher conclude the review of literature?· State the page number where the author(s) conclude the review of the literature.The researchers conclude at the end of the review of the literature. It is the limitation of information on the phenomenon of interest that sparked the interest to seek to get better cognizance of the assessments and treatment recommendations made in protocol-driven OPCCs for advanced HF patients using PC clinic notes from an early PC pilot study.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentThe conclusion of the review of the literature is found in the page 534. 7. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework (Chapter 4)7a: Is there a theoretical/conceptual framework identified and if so, what is the theoretical/conceptual framework?· Is it a nursing framework/theory-meaning does the framework/theory originate from the nursing discipline?· If not a nursing framework/theory, what discipline is the origin of the framework/theory?· State the page number where the specific framework/theory is identified.(Hint: you may need to Google the framework if not a nursing theory or conceptual model to identify what discipline the theory/conceptual model originated).The article has not provided research on any conceptual framework for the study.7b: Is the framework/theory, if identified, appropriate or a good fit for the research problem?· Discuss how/why this framework/theory is appropriate to the research problem?· If no framework/theory is identified, suggest a framework you would propose? Reflect on the nursing theories that were presented to you in your Nursing Theories class. Perhaps, you can select a theory that best reflects the relationship of the variables presented in your selected study. Or, you can identify a “borrowed” theory/framework? (Does the theory/framework originate in a discipline other than nursing and you are suggesting that it be borrowed for this study because it is a better fit?) Identify the discipline that your suggested framework/theory originates. Is it nursing or does it come from another discipline. (For example, if it is a study on the environmental culture of a hospital-would a theory originating in business/management better serve in explaining the relationship of the variables been studied?)Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment· Why did you select that particular framework/theory based on the variables present in your study?· Provide a reference for your proposed framework/theory.N/A because the article has not provided research on any conceptual framework for the study.8. Hypothesis8a: Provide a direct quote of how the author states the hypothesis in the article. Provide the page number of the quote. N/A8b: What kind of hypothesis is presented? (Null? Direct? Associative? Etc.) Answer N/A if the author did not provide a hypothesis.N/A8c: If a hypothesis is presented, did the hypothesis contain the population, intervention, comparison and outcome?Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentN/A 8d: Write a hypothesis that you might suggest if none was provided. Why did you formulate that hypothesis? What type of hypothesis did you select?N/A9: Research Design/Method-It is important that you understand design. You may want to review the slide available in Blackboard under resources related to Quantitative Designs. The figure does not include all, but many are included.9a:· What is the research design/method (blueprint) of the study? Write the design exactly as the researcher’s present it in the article.· Where did you find this information?· Include page number and quote from the article.· Based on the design, what is the level of evidence/evidence hierarchy? (Hint: see page 13 of your Lo-Biondo text.(Hint: This is a question that frequently perplexes students; is important for you to understand design in order to address the questions in this section. I might suggest that you start with clicking on Resources found on the course menu list and review the Quantitative Research Designs Figure. Try to understand the figure. It is not all inclusive but covers many of the more common designs).The research design for the chosen study is qualitative pilot study.“From April 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015, we enrolled 61 patients diagnosed with advanced HF and 48 family caregivers in a two-site, single-arm pilot study to determine the feasibility of ENABLE CHF-PC (Educate, Nurture, Before Life Ends: Comprehensive Heart care for Patients and Caregivers), an intervention to deliver early concurrent PC.” (Page 534)Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment9b: Explain how the research design is appropriate to how the researchers did a) data collection and b) data analysis,as reported in the article. Complete the table provided.(Hint: you MUST understand the purpose of a research design in order to appropriately answer this question and the characteristics attributed to the specific design. For example, if the researchers used a descriptive-exploratory design-I would not expect where one group gets an intervention and the other does not in terms of data collection or higher level inferential statistics). Design as you identified in the question aboveData Collection and how it fits with this type of designData Analysis and how it fits with this designA qualitative pilot study.The study conducted recruited 61Patients diagnosed with advanced HF and 48 family caregivers in tow sites only.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentResearch participants had to complete baseline questionnaires before they were recruited to the OPCC that sought their information pertaining to their: demographics, chronic illness care, global health, anxiety/depression, and patient-reported healthcare utilization.The data collected in this study is scalable to larger studies encompassing more variables.Only 39 out of the 61 HF patients who had consented to participate in this research completed it. So data was only analyzed for 61 HF patients. This pilot study provides insight pertaining to how large-scale research can be done. It also informs the researchers who have an interest in this area what they need to do, to proceed with it.  9c: Does the research design compensate for threats to internal and external validity of the study? If yes, which ones (box on page 172-use as a guide). Identify each of the nine (9) threat separately as provided in your text and discuss in table format. Use the table headings provided below.NOTE: Refer to the textbook – Pages 155-161List all threats identified in your textbookApplicable to your study? Answer Yes or NoIf yes, how did the researcher(s) compensate for the threat and what page did you find this information? If no, why is that specific threat not applicable to your studyInternal Threats:1.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentMortality threatYesOut of the 61 enrolled patients only 39 completed OPCC.Some of the reasons for no completion included decline/no-show, study withdrawals and death.2.Testing threatNoN/A3. Instrumentation threatNoN/A4. Regression ThreatNoN/A5.Maturation ThreatNoN/A6.History threatYesHistory becomes a threat when other factors external to the subjects (in addition to the treatment variable) change with time. There are possibilities that there could some other factors that might have affected OPCC other than the listed dependent variableExternal Threats:Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment1. Reactive or interaction effect of testingNoN/A2. Reactive effects of experimental arrangementsNoN/A3. Interaction effects of selection biases and the experimental variableNoN/A  9d:· How many groups were involved in the study?_____Two groups, HF patients and the family care givers______(Place answer here)· How were participants assigned to groups? The main objective of the study focused on the HF patient and so the research laid much of its focus on patients than on the family care givers.Family care-givers were also instrumental in providing information for this study.9e: If comparison groups were used, where they equivalent?(Hint: Look at the group demographics as well as the numbers in the groups).Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNot Applicable9f: Identify any uncontrolled, extraneous variables reported by the researchers. Include page number(s) were you found this information.· Describe how uncontrolled, extraneous variables were controlled for in the research?Not Applicable 10. Sample Selection10a: Did the authors use a population or sample in the research study? (State the page number you found this information). (HINT: Population and sample are not used interchangeably in research language)The authors used a sample drawn from the population of people who have HF and who met other inclusion criteria10b:· Are the characteristics (demographics) of the sample/participant group described? Yes______ No______· State the page number where this information is found.· Include a brief description of the sample. Do not just indicate that it can be found in a table.(Hint: Be sure you understand the concept of demographic data. This is NOT the same as inclusion criteria but may have corresponding characteristics. This information is often presented in table format in the article).Yes, there is a description of the characteristics (demographics) of the /participant group on page 535.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentThe sample is composed of people racially-diverse patients who are also diverse in other demographic aspects such as the level of education, gender, religion, marital status, their ages, spirituality stance over their medical conditions among others aspects. 10c:· What was the inclusion criteria related to the population/sample, if specified? State the page number where this information is found.· What was the exclusion criteria related to the population/sample, if specified? State the page number where this information is found.(Hint: This information is typically provided under the Methods section-“Sample”).Inclusion criteriaPatients were eligible if they presented with advanced HF as defined by NYHA Class III/IV or AHA/ACC Stage C/D HF. In addition to an advanced HF diagnosis, patient eligibility criteria were: (1) age ≥ 50,(2) English-speaking,(3) Access to telephone service (land-based or reliable cellular).Family caregivers approached by study staff were identified by the eligible patients as “someone who knows you well and is involved with your medical care.” (Wells et al., 2018).Exclusion criteriaPatients were considered ineligible if they had a prior heart transplant or mechanical circulatory support implantation, non-correctable hearing loss, dementia or significant confusion (Callahan, Unverzagt, Hui, Perkins & Hendrie, 2002), and a DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis or active substance use disorder.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment10d:· What sampling design (Chapter 12-pages 216-227) did the authors implement for this study?_______________________________________· Which category does the identified sampling design fit? Probability or nonprobability sampling?· How was the sample obtained (recruited) for the study?· Where did you locate this information in the article? State the section heading and page number.(Hint: if the authors have not identified the sampling design, use your textbook to make a determination regarding the sampling design).The sampling design utilized in this study was the critical case sampling which is a type of purposive sampling technique.Purposive sampling technique is a non-probability sampling.Recruiting of the sample entailed the patients with advanced HF being first identified and approached by study coordinators and recruitment staff. Both inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to only the qualified participants for the study.Family caregivers approached by study staff were identified by the eligible patients as “someone who knows you well and is involved with your medical care.” Trained community-based recruitment staff reviewed informed consent and study documents with eligible patients prior to study enrollment at local cardiology clinics (Wells et al., 2018).This information is found in the “Sample” section and in page 53510e: Is the sampling design one that is likely to produce a representative sample?· Is representativeness important to the methodology?· How will this sampling design affect generalizability (Page 244-look at the figure provided)?(Hint: For some types of research, representativeness is not important. It depends on the design of the study. You must know the correct sampling design to complete this question correctly).Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentRepresentativeness is not crucial in critical case sampling, because it is not easy to defend both generalizability and representativeness.10f: Is the sample size sufficient, given the design of the study and/or the number of variables in the study?· Does the study discuss power analysis? State the page number if power analysis was discussed. (HINT: Power analysis and inferential statistics used to analyze the findings are NOT the same research concepts.)· Is the power analysis even appropriate for the design of the study? Explain your answer.· If you answered yes that a power analysis would have been appropriate and no power analysis is provided-discuss your rationale for your response.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNot applicable in this study.10g: Does the report indicate the response rate (i.e. the percentage of contacted persons agreeing to participate in the study).Yes_____ No______· State the page number found._________· With the information provided is it possible for you to calculate the response rate? If yes, show the math and provide the response rate.(Hint: you may have to look in several places in your article to find this data)Yes, the study has reported the response rates in the page of 536 and under the results section.Out of 61 patients recruited for the study, only 39 completed the OPCCResponse Rate = Number of participants who completed OPCC/ Number HF patients enrolled X 100%The response rate is therefore 39/61 X 100%So the response rate is 63.93% References: For this Part 2 Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment, you will provide all reference citations for this section, in correct APA format, as a Reference List (see below). (Hint: your textbook should be listed here as well as your approved research article, as you should have cited these within your worksheet as a source of information. Reference Lists are not the same as “bibliographies.” In your Reference List, include full citations ONLY for those references/sources that were actually CITIED within the document (e.g. “in text” citations, or “full referenced” citations for specific items – even though you may have read information from other sources.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentNOTE: To submit your Part 2 assignment worksheet, use the drop box for the Module 2 Critical Thinking Assignment Part 2 Assignment (See grading rubric further below). RE: SAFE ASSIGN for DRAFT and FINAL (Module 5) SAFE Assign submissions. In the LAST week of our course, your Module 5 FINAL Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment will be a Safe Assign submission. For THIS Part 2 Assignment worksheet, your submission will NOT be a Safe Assign assignment (Please see additional directions within Module 2 about obtaining DRAFT “similarity index/originality report” scores for your DRAFT submissions and see Module 5 for directions about submission of your FINAL Critical Thinking…document to Safe Assign. NOTE: in this course, ALL SAFE ASSIGN SUBMISSIONS must be submitted WTIHOUT a REFERENCE LIST.).Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentFor this Part 2 assignment, include all of your references for this Part 2 section in a Reference List, as below, within this Part 2 worksheet (See APA manual for reference guidelines and format). Remember that references are those articles/text/websites etc that you indeed “referred to” in this worksheet. Do not include any sources you did NOT refer to in this worksheet.ReferencesBekelman, D., Rumsfeld, J., Havranek, E., Yamashita, T., Hutt, E., & Gottlieb, S. et al. (2009). Symptom Burden, Depression, and Spiritual Well-Being: A Comparison of Heart Failure and Advanced Cancer Patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 592-598. doi: 10.1007/s11606-009-0931-yBenjamin, E., Blaha, M., Chiuve, S., Cushman, M., Das, S., & Deo, R. et al. (2017). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2017 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(10). doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000485Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentCallahan, C., Unverzagt, F., Hui, S., Perkins, A., & Hendrie, H. (2002). Six-Item Screener to Identify Cognitive Impairment among Potential Subjects for Clinical Research. Medical Care, 40(9), 771-781. doi: 10.1097/00005650-200209000- 00007Kavalieratos, D., Corbelli, J., Zhang, D., Dionne-Odom, J., Ernecoff, N., & Hanmer, J. et . (2016). Association between Palliative Care and Patient and Caregiver Outcomes. JAMA, 316(20), 2104. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.16840Wells, R., Ejem, D., Dionne-Odom, J., Bagcivan, G., Keebler, K., & Frost, J. et al. (2018). Protocol driven palliative care consultation: Outcomes of the ENABLE CHF-PC pilot study. Heart & Lung, 47(6), 533-538. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.06.012Grading Rubric – Critical Thinking/Research Critique Paper – First Draft Sections 1-10: Module 2Please note: Use this grading rubric to guide your responses to the Critical Thinking/Research Critique assignment in Module 2.Note: Question 1 is evaluated under Task 11.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentTasks Target: Acceptable: Unacceptable: Not Addressed:3. Title· Focus of study apparent in title· Can identify phenomenon of interest by reading title. Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substance Attempted to respond but responses are incomplete and justification is frequently inaccurate/incorrect or omitted Not addressed  2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 Points4. Abstract· Essential content of abstract· Critical reading of abstract Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Mostly accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substance Attempted to respond but responses are incomplete and justification is inaccurate/incorrect or omitted Not addressed  2 Points 1 Point Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment0.5 Points 0 Points5. The Research Problem· Research problem identified· Clarity of problem or phenomenon· Clarity of significance of problem· IV and DV identified· Operational and conceptual definitions with page citation Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number right Mostly accurate responses but lacks justification; or justification lacks substancePage numbers are accurate Inaccurate responses or infers a problem not explicitly stated; or attempted to respond but responses are inaccurate/incorrect and justification is inaccurate or lacks substance.Page number mission or wrong Not addressedCritical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 5 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points6. Review of Literature· Relevance of ROL and research problem· Primary sources in ROL· Differentiates secondary sources· Currency of ROL· ROL identifies what is known and unknown· ROL summarized and linked to problem. Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number right Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance in justification or inappropriately justifiesClearly understands primary and secondary sources.Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect or omittedDoes not demonstrate understanding of primary and secondary sources Not addressed  5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points7. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework· Conceptual framework identified and described· If applicable, fit of conceptual framework with research problem· Discipline associated with theory· Suggested framework/theory Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyPage number provided Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justifiedPage number is provided Attempt to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrectDoes not provide page number Not addressed but study does provide a theoretical frameworkCritical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 Points8. Research Variables and Hypothesis· Author explicitly stated hypothesis· Hypothesis· Kind of hypothesis identified· Essential elements of hypothesis included· Suggested hypothesis Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriatelyClearly posts a potential hypothesis and identifies type accurately Accurate responses, but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justified. Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentPotential hypothesis is satisfactory but does not accurately identify type Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrectDoes not accurately identify a potential hypothesis or identification of type is inaccurate Not addressed  4 Point 2-3 Points 1 Points 0 Points9. Research Design/Method· Research design identified· Level of Hierarchy identified· Relationship between study design and data collection methods· Identifies threats to internal validity and external validity· Number of groups participating in study identified· Equivalence of comparison groups, if applicable· Uncontrolled, extraneous variables identified Accurate responses to each criterionJustified appropriately, page number and quote accurate. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Mainly accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justified  Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect, including page number and quoteDoes not identify all threats to internal or external validity-responses lack substance. Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment Not addressed-does not provide table  5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 Points10. Sample Selection· Study population or sample identified· Characteristics of sample/participant group· Inclusion/exclusion criteria· Sampling design and sample recruitment· Representative sample· Sample size and power analysis· Response rate Accurate responses to eachJustified appropriately Accurate responses but lacks justification; or responses lack substance or are inappropriately justified Attempted to respond but responses and justification are frequently inaccurate/incorrect Not addressedCritical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment 5-6 Points 3-4 Points 1-2 Points 0 PointsCitation (Question 1)11. Use of APA according to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Ed.)Additionally, use of good grammar, spelling and proofreading work is required No APA errors whatsoever, congratulations! No grammar or spelling errors.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentQuestion 1 displays perfect APA application; includes attention to indentation; use of upper and lower case in the title; how authors names are listed etc. Only minor error in APA rules for format, citation in text and reference list; revisit some of the common errors in APAORMinor grammar or spelling errors Many errors in APA rules for format, citation in text and reference list; revisit some of the common errors in APA.Critical Thinking/Research Critique AssignmentANDMany grammar or spelling errors Little attention to APA rules for citation in text and reference list, errors in basic format; need to crack the APA manualMore than four (4) grammar spelling errors.  2 Points 1 Point 0.5 Points 0 PointsTotal Point Score________out of 35Summary of strengths and areas to be improved:Critical Thinking/Research Critique Assignment

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