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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual Essay

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayCognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayReview the media, Johnson Family, (transcript enclosed).Compare the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for families to cognitive behavioral therapy for individualsAnalyze challenges of using cognitive behavioral therapy for families.Johnson Family Episode 3 Program Transcript[PEOPLE SOCIALIZING AT PARTY]MALE SPEAKER: Hey there. How you feeling?Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayFEMALE SPEAKER: I’m drunk.MALE SPEAKER: Yes, you are. Here, have some more.FEMALE SPEAKER: I need to lay down. I don’t feel so good.MALE SPEAKER: No, no, no, no. Not here. Not here.ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREFEMALE SPEAKER: Take me home.MALE SPEAKER: I can’t leave. It’s my frat party. I actually– But I’ll tell you what, let me take you upstairs. You can use my bed. OK?FEMALE SPEAKER: Sure.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayMALE SPEAKER: All right. Come on, Talia. I got you.FEMALE SPEAKER: I remember him lying me down on a bed and then he started kissing me. I think I kissed him back. And then he started taking off my pants. I told him to stop, but I must have passed out. When I woke up later, I didn’t have anything on. I just grabbed my clothes and got the hell out of there. I feel like such a fool. I had too much to drink. I don’t know why I let it happen.FEMALE SPEAKER: Thank you for sharing. It sounds like you still feel responsible for what happened. Has anyone else had similar feelings about something that’s happened to them?FEMALE SPEAKER: There was this guy once, I told him no just like you. I told him really loud, but it didn’t matter. He did what he wanted anyway. He raped me. And for some reason, I blamed myself for it. It took a long time and a lot of help to realize I was wrong. It wasn’t my fault. Just like it’s not your fault. That frat boy, he’s the one to blame.FEMALE SPEAKER: When it happened to me some of the people in my life, people I loved, they said it was my fault. Said that I shouldn’t have been where I was. Said it wouldn’t have happened otherwise. But it wasn’t my fault. It wasn’t. But to have people that you trust say those things about you, it’s confusing. It hurts.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayFEMALE SPEAKER: Thank you for sharing your thoughts and being supportive. It’s important in a group like this.FEMALE SPEAKER: Is it? Is it really? I’m not so sure. It hurts talking about it like this. It just, it keeps hurtingIndividual vs. Family CBTCognitive behavioral therapy is short-term psychotherapy that emphasizes the need for attitude change in order to maintain and promote behavior modification (Nichols, 2014). Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in a broad range of disorders. CBT can be done as an individual treatment or in a family setting. Individual CBT has a broadly defined framework with an emphasis on harm-reduction, especially with clients that have anxiety and substance abuse (Wheeler, 2014).Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayCognitive-behavioral therapy for families is also brief and is solution-focused. Family CBT is focused on supporting members to act and think in a more adaptive manner, along with learning to make better decisions to create a friendlier, calmer family environment (Nichols, 2014). An example from practicum is a male (T.M) that participates in individual CBT once a week and family CBT once a week. T.M is struggling with alcoholism.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayHe originally presented for individual CBT because he had been “told by his wife” that he had a problem with alcohol. He reported that he drank “a few vodka drinks” three times a week but none for six weeks. Individual CBT therapy is a collaborative process between the therapist and client that takes schemas and physiology into consideration when deciding the plan of care (Wheeler, 2014). We worked with him using open-ended questions to assist with obtaining cognitive and situational information.  He would become angry easily and it was a felt that he was not being truthful about his alcohol use. Each time he was questioned about it, the story would change. He attended two individual sessions and it was then recommended he begin family CBT with his significant other (S.M) because “things were not going well at home.”Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayWith family CBT, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are seen as having a mutual influence on one another (Nichols, 2014). The first session was stressful, to say the least. T.M began talking about his alcohol use. S.M interrupted and said, “what about that one-time last month at the hotel. You were seeing things.” He became defensive, raised his voice, and said, “I was drugged. It had nothing to do with drinking.” She then looked down and was tearful. When he left the room to use the bathroom, S.M questioned if he could be tested for alcohol. This led the therapist to believe that T.M’s last use was not six weeks ago.T.M’s automatic thoughts were that his alcoholism was not a problem in the marriage or in life. One of the core principles in using CBT for SUDs is that the substance of abuse serves as a reinforcement of behavior (McHugh et al., 2010). Over time, the positive and negative reinforcing agents become associated with daily activities. CBT tries to decrease these effects by improving the events associated with abstinence or by developing skills to assist with reduction (McHugh et al., 2010).Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayIt was noticed that when T.M was alone, his stories would change. But when his wife was in the room, he would look at her while he spoke to ensure what he was saying was accurate. The therapist informed the client that it would be appropriate to continue individual therapy and family CBT once a week with the recommendation of joining the ready for change group. The CBT model for substance use states that, when a person is trying to maintain sobriety or reduce substance use, they are likely to have a relapse (Morin et al., 2017).Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayReady for change meetings was recommended because like this week’s media showed, clients may relate to others that are going through similar situations. Getting T.M to realize that his alcohol use is a problem, is the primary goal currently. This example was shared because it shows the difficulties that may be encountered with psychotherapy and that both individual and family may be needed to ensure that goals are met. Some challenges that counselors face when using CBT in the family setting are wondering if the structure of the session and if the proper techniques were effective (Ringle et al., 2015). Evaluating and consulting with peers may also assist with meeting client and family goals.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayReferencesMcHugh, R. K., Hearon, B. A., & Otto, M. W. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 511-25. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012Morin, J., Harris, M., & Conrod, P.  (2017, October 05). A Review of CBT Treatments for Substance Use Disorders. Oxford Handbooks Online. Ed.  Retrieved fromhttp://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935291.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935291-e-57.Nichols, M. (2014). The essentials of family therapy (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Patterson, T. (2014). A Cognitive-Behavioral Systems Approach to Family Therapy. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 25(2), 132–144. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/08975353.2014.910023Ringle, V. A., Read, K. L., Edmunds, J. M., Brodman, D. M., Kendall, P. C., Barg, F., & Beidas, R. S. (2015). Barriers to and Facilitators in the Implementation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety in the Community. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.), 66(9), 938-45. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201400134Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-toguide for evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayPOST 2 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is one of the most effective psychotherapy approaches, whether it be used in group, family, or individual treatment. It is important to understand the purpose of it what its process consists off. It can be used to treat different mental health conditions, ranging from addiction to more severe illnesses. Its approach is to work with the patient into strategizing ways to change unhealthy thoughts and behaviors. Throughout the process, the patient not only learns solving skills, but also to re-evaluate and learn how to understand other’s perspectives, skill that helps build their confidence. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssaySome believe group therapy is more effective than individual therapy, as established by Kellett, Clarke, and Matthews (2007, p. 211). It has been established that CBT in general can be effective, but based on the Johnson Family Session video, it leads me to believe that either group/family or individual would be effective depending on the condition that is being treated. It is clear from the video that the girl who had been sexually assaulted at the fraternity does not believe talking or sharing her experience, even if it is with other girls who went through the same experience, will help in any way. She still has some internal issues that need to be addressed individually in order to make progress and get her to a place where she can participate in group/family therapy with an awareness that it will help her and purpose to it. Another important aspect of having a client be committed to the treatment is that research has showed “Poor compliance can adversely affect the remaining group members who may become worried or insecure” (Söchting, Lau, Ogrodniczuk, 2018, p. 185). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayAn example during practicum that supports my belief is the case of a terminally ill patient who had been recommended comfort care through hospice. She was ready to do so, understood and accepted her prognosis, but her daughters and husband were in denial. Every time they participated in a family session the patient held back on her wishes and verbalized whatever their wishes were as if they were her own. When treated as an individual client, she would express her concerns of not being able to “disappoint and abandon my family”. She had suffered all her life from anxiety, insecurities, severe depression, and low self-esteem. Those were issues that should have been addressed individually before she could fully engage in a family session in a healthy and productive way, if she would’ve had the time. CBT would have still been the choice of treatment for individual therapy for this client, as evidenced by Driessen et al. who stated it “is the psychotherapy method with the best evidence-base in the treatment of depression” (2017, p. 654). Not being fully engaged in the program, or believing the treatment will not help, or having other issues that need to be addressed on an individual basis, are all challenges presented in a family setting when relying on CBT. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayReferencesKellett, S., Clarke, S., & Matthews, L. (2007). Delivering Group Psychoeducational CBT inPrimary Care: Comparing Outcomes with Individual CBT and IndividualPsychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology,           46(2).Söchting, I., Lau, M., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2018). Predicting Compliance in Group CBT Using theGroup Therapy Questionnaire. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 68(2).Driessen,E., Van, H. L., Peen, J., Don, F. J., Twisk, J. W. R., Cuijpers, P., & Dekker, J. J. M.(2017). Cognitive-Behavioral Versus Psychodynamic Therapy for Major Depression:Secondary Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Consulting ClinicalPsychology, 85)7). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual Essay Cognitive Behavioral TherapyCognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a low-intensity psychosocial treatment approach that focuses on addressing the psychological symptoms on the understanding that eliminating them would effectively treat the condition. In essence, CBT works under the premise that the expressed psychological symptoms are all linked to the interaction between emotions, behavior, and thoughts. As such, specifically targeting emotions, behavior, and thoughts will reduce the psychological symptoms expressed (Orgeta et al., 2015; Whitaker & Cosgrove, 2015). The implication is that applying the CBT approach would entail the client working with a therapist to identify and change the emotions, behavior, and thoughts that have been maintaining the depression symptoms.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual EssayAt the core of CBT action is the comprehension that addressing the symptoms and underlying conditions is best achieved by accepting that there is a close link between emotions, behavior, and thoughts. Although CBT has found success for individuals, it is postulated that it would achieve better results in a family setting. That is because the majority of psychological problems that individuals face transpire in a family setting and accordingly, the members of the family play a part in initiating, maintaining and exacerbating the problem (Acton, 2013). Still, CBT application in the family setting (unlike the individual setting) has some unique features. Firstly, the decision to undertake CBT for the whole family is typically made by a single family member who is a position of authority. The members not in a position of authority will infrequently refer themselves for therapy (Ekkekakis, 2013). Secondly, a family setting presents reinforcers and creates adequate contingencies to bring about enduring and generalizable changes. The family members have more regular interactions (compared to CBT sessions that may occur once or twice in a week) that are more influential and could either sabotage or support therapeutic gains. This is unlike individual therapy that may lack enough reinforcers and does not create adequate contingencies (Cautin&Liliekfeld, 2015). In this respect, CBT application in an individual setting is distinctive from its application in a family setting.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual Essay  ReferencesActon, A. (2013). Major depressive disorders: new insights for the healthcare professional. Atlanta, GA: Scholarly Editions.Cautin, R. &Lilienfeld, S. (2015). The encyclopedia of clinical psychology, volume II Cli-E. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Ekkekakis, P. (2013). Routledge handbook of physical activity and mental health. New York, NY: Routledge.Orgeta, V., Qazi, A., Spector, A. &Orrell, M. (2015). Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(4), 293-298.Whitaker, R. & Cosgrove, L. (2015). Psychiatry under the influence: institutional corruption, social injury, and prescriptions for reform. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Family Settings Versus Individual Essay

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