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Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenCase Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenWhen seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE· Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?· Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.Diagnostic Test: BMI· The Assignment.· Assignment (4 pages, not including title and reference pages):Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:Include the following:· A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.o What is its purpose?Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Childreno How is it conducted?o What information does it gather?Case StudyOverweight 5-year-old black boy with overweight parents who work full-time and the boy spends his time after school with his grandmotherQuestion(Case) Overweight 5-year-old black boy with overweight parents who work full-time and the boy spends his time after school with his grandmother · Explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues.·  Explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.· Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.· Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health. ·        An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child ·        Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. AnswerAccording to research that has been done, it shows that overweight is as a result of having a lifestyle that breaks some rules and regulations on how to exercise and the foods that one consumes.Step-by-step explanationOn the issues of sensitivity it means the capacity to test someone who has the disease and detect it on the patient suffering from the disorder, specificity is the when a test is done and it found that there is no disease that is found when someone is screened, the positive predictive value is the potential of someone having the disorder while negative predictive value is the possible of those not having the disease in a particular population when the screening has been done. Children with overweight issues do have some issues that need to be handled effectively.Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenAs caregivers and parents need there is need to guide the children who are overweight. This is because if this is done it will reduce the risk of the child having some complications like high blood pressure. The caregivers and parents need to follow the following interventions to be proactive about their children who are overweight;a). The parent or the caregiver should be a good role model by taking healthy foodsb). Ensuring that talk to the child the need to be healthy and the measures one can take to be healthy alwaysc). Have a discussion on the necessity of having physical exercises and taking of healthy foodsd). Do every effort to make sure that the child have enough sleepe). By avoiding serving large meals of food to the childrenThe risk factors of overweight are that one can develop some complications if not well controlled. To gain the full understanding of the child the interventions that has been advised by the nurse they should be followed always. They best way to gather the info ad the best sensitive fashion is by encouraging and following the required sources of information about overweight and the mechanisms that can be taken to regulate the disorder.The relevant health issue that is available to be known about child overweight is that it can lead it can cause some physical conditions and complications such as asthma and bone fractures. Also, there are some social and emotional issues that can be as a result of overweight such depression and low self-esteem.Assessing the overweight disorder a nurse has to look at the key issues like the blood pressure, the weight and the height, and the body mass index. These are the most important assessment that should be done on the patient.The five-year old caregiver should be asked the following sensitive and specific questions on the overweight disorder;a). The previous weight of the patientb). The history of the family about the overweight and obesityc). If the patient is depressed or stressedIt is crucial and critical parents and caregivers to be proactive and have measures and strategies on how to manage the weight of their children. The strategies include;a). Minding the meals and drinks of the childb). Ensuring that the caregiver or the parents tracks the intake of the food by the child Another Answer Danger Associated With OverweightBeing overweight can cause several health risks and issues such as diabetes due to high blood sugar, stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, the liver disease, which occurs due to fats accumulating in the liver, and gall bladder disease, caused when the gall bladder is filled with gallstones.Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenStep-by-step explanationDanger Associated With OverweightBeing overweight can cause several health risks and issues such as diabetes due to high blood sugar, stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, the liver disease, which occurs due to fats accumulating in the liver, and gall bladder disease, caused when the gall bladder is filled with gallstones.Additionally, I would like to find out what type of food the child eats, which would help understand the child’s health. I want to find out if the boy engages in any sporting activities in school or after school. I would also ask if overweight is hereditary, or it has only occurred for the boy and his parents. This would assist in further assessing the boy’s health.Due to risk such as high blood pressure, where your heart needs to pump the blood harder due to the fats around the blood vessels, and stroke, which occurs when blood is not reaching the brain, I would like to find out if the boy has any other health issues now or before.What type of food does the boy eat?Since overweight is a disorder that can cause health risks, and sometimes it is hereditary, is it possible that the overweight in this family is hereditary?Does the child have any other health issues?First, I would educate the parents and caregivers about the risks and health complications of being overweight. I would encourage them to do more exercise and avoid eating fatty and sugary foods since this is the main cause of obesity. I would also give them real examples of people who have recovered from being overweight.For this Discussion, you will consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.To prepare:· Consider the following examples of pediatric patients and their families:· Overweight 5-year-old boy with overweight parents· Slightly overweight 10-year-old girl with parents of normal weight· 5-year-old girl of normal weight with obese parents· Slightly underweight 8-year-old boy with parents of normal weight· Severely underweight 12-year-old girl with underweight parents· Select one of the examples on which to focus for this Discussion. What health issues and risks may be relevant to the child you selected?· Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.· Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.By Day 3Post an explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you selected. Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Main post week 3Overweight 5-year-old boy with overweight parentsBeing overweight means having excess bodyweight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors (Childhood Obesity Facts, 2015).Health Issues and Risks of being over weightOverweight increases the health risks for children and teens. Increasing number of American children are developing type 2 diabetes, which was once rare. Also, overweight children are more likely to become overweight or obese as adults, with the same disease risks (NHLBI, NIH, 2012). Overweight is associated with increased for many types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostrate, as well as multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Kushi, et al.,2006).Additional information to further assess his weight-related healthSince the child and parents are overweight as well, it is necessary to assess the family for causes such as behavior and genetics. They need to be assessed for dietary patterns, physical activity, inactivity, medication use, and other exposures. I would also assess additional factors in the society such as food and physical environment, education and skills, and food marketing and promotion (Childhood Obesity Facts, 2015).Three specific questions about the child to gather more information.1. Does your child go out and play with his friends or does any activity such as swimming or biking?2. Does he love sweet food products such as donuts and cupcakes?3. What does your usual daily food intake as a family looks like?Two strategies to encourage the parents to be proactive about their child’s health and weightI will suggest the parents to follow healthy lifestyle habits including healthy eating and physical activity. This can lower the risk of becoming obese and developing related diseases (The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation 2010, 2010).I will recommend them to use the Dietary Guidelines for American as a guide for a healthy diet pattern. These guidelines emphasize on eating whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean protein, low-fat dairy products and drinking water. I will also recommend them to follow the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans which recommends children to do at least 60 minutes of physical activity everyday (Childhood Obesity Facts, 2015).Thus, in order to have a healthy weight for the child, in this case the whole family should be taken into account and be encouraged to make an effort towards a healthy goal.Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenReferencesChildhood Obesity Facts. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htmKushi, L. H., Byers, T., Doyle, C., Bandera, E. V., Mccullough, M., Gansler, T., . . . Thun, M. J. (2006).American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer With Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 56(5), 254-281. doi:10.3322/canjclin.56.5.254The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation 2010. (2010). PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e511782010-001What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity? – NHLBI, NIH. (2012). Retrieved fromhttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/risks   By Day 6Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days who selected a different example than you, using one or more of the following approaches:· Suggest additional health risks or issues that could be relevant to the child.· Critique your colleagues’ questions, and suggest how the parents or caregivers might interpret these questions. Provide alternate or additional questions.· Suggest an additional strategy for gathering patient information or promoting proactivity.· There was a study done to find more about the differences in parental feeding practices based on their ethnicity/ race, household income, parent education level, acculturation and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Eligible parents were asked to complete Preschooler Feeding Questionairre (PFQ). PFQ included five subscales: child over eating concerns, child underweight concerns, difficulty with picky eating, using food to calm, and pushing child to eat. It was interesting to find that the Spanish speaking parents were significantly more worried about their child being underweight than English speaking participants. High income non-WIC parents were more likely have a picky eater than WIC parents. Also Spanish speaking parents and Black parents were more likely to use food to calm their child. Thus, it only tells the practitioner that he/ she needs to be aware of the differences in parental feeding practices and concerns among parent of different ethnicity and culture. Also the results from this study could be used to tailor the health programs that promote healthy feeding practices among parents( Evans, et.al., 2011).Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenReferenceEvans, A., Seth, J., Smith, S., Harris, K., Loyo, J., Spaulding, C., & … Gottlieb, N. (2011). Parental Feeding Practices and Concerns Related to Child Underweight, Picky Eating, and Using Food to Calm Differ According to Ethnicity/Race, Acculturation, and Income. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 15(7), 899-909. doi:10.1007/s10995-009-0526-6  To gather information and evaluate the health of the preteen, one can use anthropometry. It is a non-invasive, inexpensive method used to assess the size, proportions, and composition of the human body. The World Health Organization has also recommended to use the growth charts to monitor physical growth. If the anthropometric parameters are below 3rd percentile then it is indicative of insufficient growth and nutrition (Gaur & Nayak, 2011).Given the fact that the girl is severely underweight and that her parents are underweight as well, it is important to also assess the other factors like maternal educational levels, socio-economic status and family size need to be addressed as well. The girl should also be assessed for dental caries. Having dental caries can affect the physical, mental, and overall systemic health. It also increases her chances of having iron deficiency anemia and in some cases it can also lead to failure to thrive without any particular reason (Gaur & Nayak, 2011).ReferenceGaur, S., & Nayak, R. (2011). Underweight in low socioeconomic status preschool children with severe early childhood caries. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 29(4), 305. Retrieved from http://auth.waldenulibrary.org/ezpws.exe?url=http://go.galegroup.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ps/i.do?p=EAIM&sw=w&u=minn4020&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA270674561&asid=c67b35eec3ba700b9f057ec8556d0650. Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

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