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Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay

Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayAdvanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayPlease answer questions separatelyDISCUSSION ONE1.1.Choose an FDA-approved prescription medication( vancomycin) anddiscuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the medication,1.2.include any differences that would be expected based on the patient’s age, a condition of pregnancy, or lactation.1.3.Address any adverse effects the medication may have based on age, pregnancy, or lactation.Use 3 referencesAdvanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayDISCUSSION TWO2.1.Use of vaccinations.2.2.Concerns regarding the safety of vaccinations.2.3.How to educate parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccinations?2.4.Defend answers with evidence-based research.Use 3 referencesORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HEREPatient education FlyerPrinciples for Safe Use of Pharmacologic and Herbal SubstancesDesign a 1-2 page patient education flyer/pamphlet for an alternative medicine/herbal product.Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues (risks and benefits of using an alternative medication/herbal product versus a prescription medication).The flyer should include at least two community and/or online resources for the patient to obtain more information.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayRUBRIC  1No submission0.00% 2Unsatisfactory75.00% 3Less than Satisfactory80.00% 4Satisfactory88.00% 5Good92.00% 6Excellent100.00%80.0 %Content Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay60.0 %The patient education flyer is well developed and includes the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription medication. The flyer was turned in but no information was included.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay Flyer lacks development and is missing all or parts of the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription medication. The flyer is insufficiently developed and is missing parts of the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription medication. The patient education flyer is adequately developed but only partially includes the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription medication. The patient education flyer is adequately developed and includes the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription. The patient education flyer is well developed and includes the product?s intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issue, including the risks/benefits of using the product versus a prescription. 10.0 %The flyer includes community and/or online resources for the patient to obtain further information. The flyer was turned in but no information was included.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay The flyer does not include any community or online resources. The flyer includes community or online resources but are inaccurate. The flyer includes at least one community but no online resources for the patient. The flyer includes at least one community and/or online resources for the patient to obtain further information.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay The flyer includes two or more community and/or online resources for the patient to obtain further information. 10.0 %The information in the flyer is accurate and appropriate for patient education. The flyer was turned in but no information was included. The information is completely inaccurate and is not appropriate for patient education The information is not completely accurate and is appropriate for patient education but the wrong patient population. The information in the flyer is not completely accurate or appropriate for patient education. The information in the flyer is accurate but inappropriate for patient education. The information in the flyer is accurate and appropriate for patient education. 15.0 %Format and Style Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay5.0 %Flyer has a creative and sophisticated construction. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The flyer was not turned in or had no information in any of the sections. Flyer consistently lacks unity and coherence. No connections are apparent between ideas. Organization is disjointed. No creativity present.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay Lacks a logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident. No creativity present. The flyer is generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other. Lacking creativity. There is a creative and sophisticated construction. A logical progression of ideas is apparent. There is a creative and sophisticated construction. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay 5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, and grammar) There was nothing turned in to grade.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay Errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors that distract the reader. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay Flyer is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. Writer is clearly in control of standard, written American English. 5.0 %Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes appropriate readability level, sentence construction, word choice, etc.) There was nothing turned in to grade. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction, lack of variety in language use. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of ?primer prose? indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately. Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present. Sentence structure may be occasionally ineffective or inappropriate. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately. Sentence structure is correct and occasionally varies. Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part. The writer is clearly aware of audience; uses a variety of sentence structures and appropriate vocabulary for the target audience; uses figures of speech to communicate clearly. The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in unique and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, patient readability level, and scope. 5.0 %APA Format Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay5.0 %Evaluating and Documenting Sources (includes use of appropriate style, correct citation format in-text, and in Reference section) Contains no References section, and no correctly cited references within the body of the presentation. Reference section is included but does not include all references and includes errors. Not all references within the body of the presentation are included. References section includes sources, but many citation errors. References within the body of the presentation are included, but with many citation errors. Reference section includes sources, but they are not consistently cited correctly as to the APA guidelines. References included within the body of the presentation, but with only a few citation errors. References section includes sources, but they are not consistently cited correctly. References included within the body of the presentation, but with some citation errors. References section includes correctly cited sources. References within the body of the presentation are included and correctly cited. 100 %Total Weightage   HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS AND SURGERYPrior to attending a surgery, the patient is required to provide a list of all supplements taken to include those used to ease upset stomach, relieve headache, and lower cholesterol. However, it is important that the patient should not forget to mention herbal supplements being taken. That is because, similar to other medications (whether over the counter or prescription), herbal supplements can affect the surgery to include moderating anesthesia.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayThe major surgical concerns about herbal supplementsUnlike other medications, herbal supplements are not regulated by the FDA so that their safety and efficacy cannot be guaranteed. This also means that there is no standard constitution. Rather, each seller will develop a blended constitution thought to work best.Even if the herbal supplement has not presented any harm, it must be understood that it could present some risks during surgery:Introducing heart problems.Interfering with other medication.Increasing blood pressure.Increasing bleeding risks.Affecting anesthesia.Meeting the surgical team to discuss herbal supplementsBefore any surgery, the patient is expected to meet the surgical team to develop a surgery care plan. With extensive education, clinical training and experience, the surgical team is responsible for ensure that high-quality and safe care is offered to the patient during the course of the surgery and even after.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayDuring the meeting, the surgical team answers all the surgery-related questions and concerns that the patient may have. The team uses the opportunity to ask comprehensive questions about the patient’s health and medication. At this point, the patient should include the herbal supplements being taken. Many patients could think that this information is not necessary, but the information could affect the surgery outcomes. In fact, patient should present samples of the herbal medication along with their packaging to aid the team in knowing what supplement and how much the patient is taking since there are those that may need to be discontinued prior to the surgery.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayPotential surgery risks of some common herbal supplementsValerian – A sleeping aid, but could have an effect on anesthesia.St. John’s Wort–Sleeping aid and also used for anxiety, but could affect anesthesia by prolonging it.Kava – Used for anxiety, but could increase the anesthetic effect.Ginseng – Improves concentration, but could increase bleeding risk since it increases the heart rate.Ginkgo – Improves memory, but could increase bleeding risk.Garlic – Lowers the blood pressure and cholesterol, but could increase bleeding risk.Ephedra – Suppresses appetite, but could interact with medication for bleed pressure to increase heart rate and blood pressure.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayAdvanced Pathophysiology and PharmacologyDISCUSSION ONEChoose an FDA-approved prescription medication (vancomycin) and discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the medicationVancomycin is a non-concentration-dependent antibiotic whose use is linked with lower relative risk of injury to the kidneys. In fact, it presents as a large molecule that is eliminated through the kidneys. It is distributed throughout the body with low concentration in the serum of uninflamed tissue (between 0% and 18%) although a concentration of between 10% and 30% is reported in the uninflamed tissue of diabetics. High concentrations are reported in the inflamed tissue (between 36% and 48%), maximum concentration of between 41% and 51% in the lungs. The drug has a slow mode of action in inhibiting murein monomers incorporation into peptidoglycans even as they grow to result in osmotic cytolysis. Additionally, the drug presents weak bactericidal activity when faced with biofilm-linked resistance and high inoculum (Vandecasteele, De Vriese&Tacconelli, 2013).Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayInclude any differences that would be expected based on the patient’s age, a condition of pregnancy, or lactation.Address any adverse effects the medication may have based on age, pregnancy, or lactation.Vancomycin is considered safe for use during pregnancy since it only excreted in milk in very low concentrations. On the other hand, it is necessary to adjust the dose based on age. This is particularly true for elderly persons (older than 65 years). That is because the drug has a long half-life in this population (12.1 hours to 17.8 hours) when compared to younger populations (approximately 7.2 hours) so that its clearance takes significantly longer. To be more succinct, individuals with normal renal function report half-life of between 5 hours and 11 hours. As such, elderly persons with compromised renal function smaller drug dose when compared to their younger counterparts (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Additionally, dose adjustment is recommended for obese and female patients and those with spinal cord injury since they have a higher drug volume distribution and longer half-life. Besides that, the drug is nephrotoxic and should be used cautiously in patients with impaired renal function (Murray, Rosenthal &Pfaller, 2016).Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay DISCUSSION TWO2.1.Use of vaccinations.Vaccination, like all other medical interventions,is intended to improve health status. In fact, the purpose is to reverse the mortality and morbidity linked with various infectious disease. This is particularly true for persons with compromised immune systems who are experiencing health declines and require immune boosters to fight pathogens. In fact, the list of vaccines that are important to all populations is perhaps the longest for any age group. Prioritized at the top of that list is vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal infections and Herpes zoster that are preventable using vaccines but cause serious damage to the population if left unmanaged (Dube et al., 2013).Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay2.2.Concerns regarding the safety of vaccinations.Vaccines are typically present for public use only after being verified to be safe and produce acceptable efficacy. Still, populations will typically express hesitancy from safety concerns that is blamed on lack of communication that is due to lack of provider knowledge and incentive to discuss common barriers related to vaccine hesitancy and refusal of vaccination. In fact, vaccine hesitancy in some individuals is associated with personal (psychological beliefs), contextual (cost, economic issues), socio-cultural (religious beliefs), lack of patient education (limited knowledge about the vaccine), socio-demographic, and physical barriers (elderly and the very young with no resource to get to a clinic site), resulting in reduced vaccination acceptance rates, complacency and hesitancy. Given this awareness, medical providers must be knowledgeable about potential barriers that lead to hesitancy and/or refusal to accept vaccination and must be able to discuss these issues in the clinical setting (Schmid, et al., 2017). This is particularly true for the safety concern that is a non-issue since approval by the FDA for public use is only provided after safety has been ascertained.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay2.3.How to educate parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccinations?2.4.Defend  answers with evidence-based research.Educating parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccination should focus on engaging medical personnel to raise vaccine awareness and increase the number of vaccinated individuals for health promotion and disease prevention. This would entail focusing on the inherent benefits of vaccination to prevent and ameliorate worsening of comorbid conditions, reduction in nosocomial infections, promotes social equity, decreases pneumococcal related hospitalizations and decreases overall morbidity and mortality rate among the population (Cafiero-Fonseca et al., 2017).Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay  Patient Education FlierHERBAL SUPPLEMENTS AND SURGERYPrior to attending a surgery, the patient is required to provide a list of all supplements taken to include those used to ease upset stomach, relieve headache, and lower cholesterol. However, it is important that the patient should not forget to mention herbal supplements being taken. That is because, similar to other medications (whether over the counter or prescription), herbal supplements can affect the surgery to include moderating anesthesia.The major surgical concerns about herbal supplementsUnlike other medications, herbal supplements are not regulated by the FDA so that their safety and efficacy cannot be guaranteed. This also means that there is no standard constitution. Rather, each seller will develop a blended constitution thought to work best.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayEven if the herbal supplement has not presented any harm, it must be understood that it could present some risks during surgery:Introducing heart problems.Interfering with other medication.Increasing blood pressure.Increasing bleeding risks.Affecting anesthesia.Meeting the surgical team to discuss herbal supplementsBefore any surgery, the patient is expected to meet the surgical team to develop a surgery care plan. With extensive education, clinical training and experience, the surgical team is responsible for ensure that high-quality and safe care is offered to the patient during the course of the surgery and even after.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayDuring the meeting, the surgical team answers all the surgery-related questions and concerns that the patient may have. The team uses the opportunity to ask comprehensive questions about the patient’s health and medication. At this point, the patient should include the herbal supplements being taken. Many patients could think that this information is not necessary, but the information could affect the surgery outcomes. In fact, patient should present samples of the herbal medication along with their packaging to aid the team in knowing what supplement and how much the patient is taking since there are those that may need to be discontinued prior to the surgery.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators EssayPotential surgery risks of some common herbal supplementsValerian – A sleeping aid, but could have an effect on anesthesia.St. John’s Wort – Sleeping aid and also used for anxiety, but could affect anesthesia by prolonging it.Kava – Used for anxiety, but could increase the anesthetic effect.Ginseng – Improves concentration, but could increase bleeding risk since it increases the heart rate.Ginkgo – Improves memory, but could increase bleeding risk.Garlic – Lowers the blood pressure and cholesterol, but could increase bleeding risk.Ephedra – Suppresses appetite, but could interact with medication for bleed pressure to increase heart rate and blood pressure.Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay ReferencesCafiero-Fonseca, E. T., Stawasz, A., Johnson, S. T., Sato, R., & Bloom, D. E. (2017). The full benefits of adult pneumococcal vaccination: a systematic review. PLoS ONE, 12(10), e0186903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186903Dubé, E., Laberge, C., Guay, M., Bramadat, P., Roy, R., &Bettinger, J. A. (2013). Vaccine hesitancy:  An overview. Human Vaccines &Immunotherapeutics, 9(8), 1763–1773.Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S. &Pfaller, M. A. (2016). Medical Microbiology (8thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.Schmid, P., Rauber, D., Betsch, C., Lidolt, G. &Denker, M. (2017). Barriers of Influenza Vaccination Intention and Behavior – A Systematic Review of Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy, 2005 – 2016. PLoS ONE, 12(1), e0170550. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170550Vandecasteele, S. J., De Vriese, A. S. &Tacconelli, E. (2013). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vancomycin in clinical practice: evidence and uncertainties. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68, 743-748. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks495Woo, T. M. & Robinson, M. V. (2016). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurse prescribers (4thed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company. Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators Essay

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