Expert Homework Help Online & Write My Essay Service

Hire best homework helpers for online homework help 24/7. Are you looking for online homework help? Try our excellent homework help who can help you get A+ grade in your assignment.

Order my paper
Calculate your essay price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

19 k happy customers
9.5 out of 10 satisfaction rate
527 writers active

2 essays questions related to Organizational Behavior need to be answered

Hello, I have 2 questions related to Organizational Behavior ( People in Organization ) that need to be answered. Each essay should be no longer than one (1) page, and must include a bibliography. The paper must include references to Organizational Behavior topics which I will provide them to you. 1. Analyze the pro’s and con’s of politics in the workplace both from a personal perspective and from an organizational perspective.2. Describe a leader that you look-up to in Organizational Behavior terms (what is their leadership style, how do they motivate followers, what is their personality/communication style, etc.).

Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-1
13
Power
and
Politics
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Objectives
❑Contrast leadership and power.
❑Explain the three bases of formal power and the
two bases of personal power.
❑Explain the role of dependence in power
relationships.
❑Identify power or influence tactics and their
contingencies.
❑Identify the causes and consequences of abuse
of power.
❑Describe how politics work in organizations.
❑Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of
political behavior.
13-3
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Define Power and Contrast
Leadership and Power
➢Power refers to a capacity that A has to
influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in
accordance with A’s wishes.
➢ Power may exist but not be used.
➢Probably the most important aspect of power
is that it is a function of dependence.
➢A person can have power over you only if he
or she controls something you desire.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
13-4
LO 1
Define Power and Contrast
Leadership and Power
➢Leaders use power as a means of attaining
group goals.
➢Goal compatibility
➢Power does not require goal compatibility,
merely dependence.
➢ The direction of influence
➢Leadership focuses on the downward
influence on one’s followers.
➢ Leadership research emphasizes style.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
13-5
LO 2
Explain Formal Power
and Personal Power
➢Formal Power
➢ Coercive Power
➢ Reward Power
➢ Legitimate Power
➢Personal Power
➢ Expert Power
➢ Referent Power
13-6
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 2
Explain Formal Power
and Personal Power
➢Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective?
➢ Personal sources are most effective.
➢ Both expert and referent power are
positively related to employees’ satisfaction
with supervision, their organizational
commitment, and their performance,
whereas reward and legitimate power seem
to be unrelated to these outcomes.
➢ Coercive power usually backfires.
13-7
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Explain the Role of Dependence
in Power Relationships
➢The General Dependency Postulate
➢ When you possess anything that others
require but that you alone control, you make
them dependent upon you and, therefore,
you gain power over them.
➢ Dependence, then, is inversely proportional
to the alternative sources of supply.
13-8
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Explain the Role of Dependence
in Power Relationships
➢What Creates Dependence?
➢ Importance
➢ Scarcity
➢ Nonsubstitutability
13-9
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Explain the Role of Dependence
in Power Relationships
13-10
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Identify Power or Influence
Tactics and their Contingencies
➢ Influence tactics:
➢ Legitimacy
➢ Rational persuasion
➢ Inspirational appeals
➢ Consultation
➢ Exchange
➢Personal appeals
➢Ingratiating
➢Pressure
➢Coalitions
13-11
13-11
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Identify Nine Power or Influence
Tactics and their Contingencies
➢Some tactics are more effective than others.
➢ Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals,
and consultation are most effective when the
audience is highly interested in the
outcomes.
➢ Pressure tends to backfire.
➢ Both ingratiation and legitimacy can lessen
the negative reactions from appearing to 13-12
“dictate” outcomes.
13-12
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Identify Nine Power or Influence
Tactics and their Contingencies
13-13
13-13
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Identify Nine Power or Influence
Tactics and their Contingencies
➢People in different countries prefer different
power tactics.
➢ Individualistic countries see power in
personalized terms and as a legitimate
means of advancing their personal ends.
➢ Collectivistic countries see power in social
terms and as a legitimate means of helping
others.
13-14
13-14
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Identify Nine Power or Influence
Tactics and their Contingencies
➢Applying Power Tactics
➢ People differ in terms of their political skill:
their ability to influence others to enhance
their own objectives.
➢ Cultures within organizations differ
markedly: some are warm, relaxed, and
supportive; others are formal and
conservative.
13-15
13-15
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Causes and Consequences
of Abuse of Power
➢Does power corrupt?
➢Power leads people to place their own
interests ahead of others.
➢Powerful people react, especially negatively,
to any threats to their competence.
➢Power leads to overconfident decision
making.
➢Power doesn’t affect everyone in the same
way, and there are even positive effects of 13-16
power.
13-16
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Causes and Consequences
of Abuse of Power
➢Sexual harassment: any unwanted activity of
a sexual nature that affects an individual’s
employment and creates a hostile work
environment.
➢ Organizations have generally made progress
in the past decade toward limiting overt forms
of sexual harassment.
➢Managers have a responsibility to protect their
employees from a hostile work environment, but
13-17
they also need to protect themselves.
13-17
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Causes and Consequences
of Abuse of Power
➢Mangers should:
➢Make sure an active policy defines what
constitutes sexual harassment, informs
employees they can be fired for sexually
harassing another employee, and establishes
procedures for how complaints can be made.
➢Reassure employees that they will not
encounter retaliation if they issue a complaint.
13-18
13-18
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Causes and Consequences
of Abuse of Power
➢In addition, managers should:
➢Investigate every complaint and include the
legal and human resource departments.
➢Make sure offenders are disciplined or
terminated.
➢Set up in-house seminars to raise employee
awareness of the issues surrounding sexual
harassment.
13-19
13-19
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 6
Describe How Politics
Work in Organizations
➢Political behavior: activities that are not
required as part of one’s formal role in the
organization, but that influence the distribution
of advantages within the organization.
➢ Outside of one’s specified job requirements.
➢ Encompasses efforts to influence decisionmaking goals, criteria, or processes.
➢ Includes such behaviors as withholding
information, whistle-blowing, spreading
13-20
rumors, and leaking confidential information.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
13-20
LO 6
Describe How Politics
Work in Organizations
13-21
13-21
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
13-22
13-22
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
13-23
13-23
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
13-24
13-24
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
➢Impression management (IM): the process by
which individuals attempt to control the
impression others form of them.
➢Mostly high self-monitors.
➢Impressions people convey are not necessarily
false – they might truly believe them.
➢Intentional misrepresentation may have a high
cost.
➢The effectiveness of IM depends on the situation.
13-25
13-25
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
➢The Ethics of Behaving Politically
➢ Questions to consider:
➢What is the utility of engaging in
politicking?
➢How does the utility of engaging in the
political behavior balance out any harm (or
potential harm) it will do to others?
➢Does the political activity conform to
standards of equity and justice?
13-26
13-26
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 7
Causes and Consequences
of Political Behavior
13-27
13-27
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Implications for Managers
➢To maximize your power, you will want to increase
others’ dependence on you. You can, for instance,
increase your power in relation to your boss by
developing knowledge or a skill she needs and for
which she perceives no ready substitute.
➢You will not be alone in attempting to build your power
bases. Others, particularly employees and peers, will
be seeking to increase your dependence on them,
while you are trying to minimize it and increase their
dependence on you. The result is a continual battle.
➢Try to avoid putting others in a position where they
13-28
feel they have no power.
13-28
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Implications for Managers
➢By assessing behavior in a political framework, you
can better predict the actions of others and use that
information to formulate political strategies that will
gain advantages for you and your work unit.
➢Consider that employees who have poor political
skills or are unwilling to play the politics game
generally relate perceived organizational politics to
lower job satisfaction and self-reported performance,
increased anxiety, and higher turnover. Therefore, if
you are adept at organizational politics, help your
employees understand the importance of becoming
13-29
politically savvy.
13-29
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
13-30
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
1-1
12
Leadership
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Objectives
❑Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership.
❑Identify the central tenets and main limitations of
behavioral theories.
❑Contrast contingency theories of leadership.
❑Describe the contemporary theories of leadership and
their relationship to foundational theories.
❑Discuss the roles of leaders in creating ethical
organizations.
❑Describe how leaders can have a positive impact on their
organizations through building trust and mentoring.
❑Identify the challenges to our understanding of leadership.
12-3
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions of
Trait Theories of Leadership
➢Leadership is the ability to influence a group
toward the achievement of a vision or set of
goals.
➢ Not all leaders are managers, nor are all
managers leaders.
➢Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important
or more important than formal influence.
12-4
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions
of Trait Theories of Leadership
➢Trait theories of leadership focus on
personal qualities and characteristics.
➢ The search for personality, social, physical,
or intellectual attributes that differentiate
leaders from non-leaders goes back to the
earliest stages of leadership research.
12-5
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions
of Trait Theories of Leadership
➢A comprehensive review of the leadership
literature, when organized around the Big Five,
has found extraversion to be the most important
trait of effective leaders, but it is more strongly
related to the way leaders emerge than to their
effectiveness.
➢Unlike agreeableness and emotional stability,
conscientiousness and openness to experience
also showed strong relationships to leadership,
though not quite as strong as extraversion.
12-6
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions
of Trait Theories of Leadership
➢Good leaders:
➢ Like being around people.
➢ Are able to assert themselves (extraverted).
➢ Are disciplined and able to keep commitments
they make (conscientious).
➢ Are creative and flexible (open).
12-7
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions
of Trait Theories of Leadership
➢Another trait that may indicate effective
leadership is emotional intelligence.
➢A core component of EI is empathy.
➢The link between EI and leadership
effectiveness may be worth investigating in
greater detail.
12-8
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Summarize the Conclusions
of Trait Theories of Leadership
➢Two conclusions:
➢ Traits can predict leadership.
➢ Traits do a better job predicting the
emergence of leaders and the
appearance of leadership than actually
distinguishing between effective and
ineffective leaders.
12-9
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 2
Central Tenets and Main
Limitations of Behavioral Theories
➢Behavioral theories of leadership imply we
can train people to be leaders.
➢ Ohio State Studies found two behaviors
that accounted for most leadership
behavior:
➢Initiating structure
➢Consideration
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-10
LO 2
Central Tenets and Main
Limitations of Behavioral Theories
➢The GLOBE study suggests there are
international differences in preference for
initiating structure and consideration.
➢ Based on the values of Brazilian
employees, a U.S. manager leading a
team in Brazil would need to be teamoriented, participative, and humane.
Leaders high in consideration would
succeed best in this culture.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-11
LO 2
Central Tenets and Main
Limitations of Behavioral Theories
➢Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral
Theories
➢ Leaders who have certain traits and who
display culturally appropriate consideration
and structuring behaviors do appear to be
more effective.
➢ Traits and behaviors do not guarantee
success.
➢Context matters too.
12-12
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
➢The Fiedler contingency model: effective
group performance depends upon the proper
match between the leader’s style and the
degree to which the situation gives control to
the leader.
➢ The least preferred coworker (LPC)
questionnaire:
➢Task- or relationship-oriented.
➢Assumes leadership style is fixed.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-13
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
➢Defining the Situation
➢ Contingency dimensions:
➢Leader-member relations
➢Task structure
➢Position power
12-14
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
12-15
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
➢Situational leadership theory (SLT) is a
contingency theory that focuses on the
followers.
➢Successful leadership is achieved by
selecting the right leadership style, which
is contingent on the level of the followers’
readiness.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-16
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
➢Path-goal theory:
➢ Contingency model of leadership that
extracts key elements from the Ohio State
leadership research on initiating structure and
consideration and the expectancy theory of
motivation.
➢ Derived from belief that effective leaders
clarify the path to help followers achieve work
goals.
12-17
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
➢The leader-participation model relates
leadership behavior and participation in
decision making.
➢ Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the
task structure.
12-18
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 3
Contrast Contingency
Theories of Leadership
12-19
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
12-20
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
12-21
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made?
➢ Some individuals are born with charismatic
traits, others are trained to exhibit
charismatic behaviors.
➢Develop the aura of charisma.
➢Create a bond that inspires others to
follow.
➢Bring out the potential in followers by
tapping into their emotions.
12-22
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢How Charismatic Leaders Influence
Followers
➢ Articulating an appealing vision.
➢ Developing a vision statement.
➢ Establishing a new set of values.
➢ Conveying courage and conviction about
the vision.
12-23
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢Does Effective Charismatic Leadership
Depend on the Situation?
➢ People are especially receptive when they
sense a crisis, when they are under stress,
or when they fear for their lives.
12-24
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership
➢ Many leaders don’t necessarily act in the
best interest of their companies.
➢Many have allowed their personal goals to
override the goals of the organization.
➢Individuals who are narcissistic are also
higher in some behaviors associated with
charismatic leadership.
12-25
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
12-26
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-27
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢How Transformational Leadership Works
➢ Creativity – theirs and others.
➢ Decentralization of responsibility.
➢ Propensity to take risks.
➢ Compensation is geared toward long-term
results.
➢ Greater agreement among top managers
about the organization’s goals.
12-28
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢Evaluation of Transformational Leadership
➢ Transformational leadership has been
supported at diverse job levels and
occupations, but isn’t equally effective in all
situations.
➢It has a greater impact on the bottom line
in smaller, privately-held firms than in more
complex organizations.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-29
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢ Transformational versus Transactional
Leadership
➢Transformational leadership is more
strongly correlated with lower turnover
rates, higher productivity, lower employee
stress and burnout, and higher employee
satisfaction.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-30
LO 4
Contemporary Theories
of Leadership
➢Transformational versus Charismatic
Leadership
➢ Charismatic leadership places more
emphasis on the way leaders communicate
– are they passionate and dynamic?
➢ Transformational leadership focuses more
on what they are communicating – is it a
compelling vision?
➢ Both focus on the leader’s ability to inspire
followers.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
12-31
LO 5
Role of Leaders in Creating
Ethical Organizations
➢Authentic Leadership
➢ Authentic leaders:
➢Know who they are.
➢Know what they believe in and value.
➢Act on those values and beliefs openly
and candidly.
➢ The result: people come to have faith in
them.
12-32
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Role of Leaders in Creating
Ethical Organizations
➢Ethical Leadership
➢ Ethics touches on leadership at a number
of junctures.
➢ Efforts have been made to combine ethical
and charismatic leadership into an idea of
socialized charismatic leadership –
leadership that conveys other-centered
values by leaders who model ethical
conduct.
12-33
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 5
Role of Leaders in Creating
Ethical Organizations
➢Servant Leadership
➢ Servant leaders go beyond their selfinterest and instead focus on opportunities
to help followers grow and develop.
➢ Characteristic behaviors include listening,
empathizing, persuading, accepting
stewardship, and actively developing
followers’ potential.
12-34
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, I…

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: